Gait Symmetry Measures and Their Relevance to Gait Retraining

  • Silvia Cabral
Reference work entry


A symmetric gait pattern for humans is characterized by the almost identical behavior of bilateral limbs during a gait cycle. This symmetry is usually compromised in pathological gait due to the presence of pain, or as a consequence of an underlying impairment. Over time, the persistence of an asymmetric gait pattern may predispose patients to the development of other musculoskeletal problems. Based on this premise, research has been conducted to confirm the existence of gait asymmetry in various clinical populations and to assess the efficacy and feasibility of gait retraining programs to restore gait symmetry. This chapter explores conventional measures of symmetry, discussing their strengths and limitations in the context of intersession agreement and reliability, sensitivity to changing levels of gait symmetry, and relevance for gait retraining.


Symmetry Gait analysis Gait retraining Gait index Symmetry index Repeatability Reliability 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Biomecânica e Morfologia Funcional, CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade HumanaUniversidade de LisboaCruz Quebrada, DafundoPortugal

Section editors and affiliations

  • William Scott Selbie
    • 1
  1. 1.Has-Motion Inc.KingstonCanada

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