Three-Dimensional Human Kinematic Estimation Using Magneto-Inertial Measurement Units

  • Andrea Cereatti
  • Ugo Della Croce
  • Angelo M. Sabatini
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter deals with the estimation of human kinematics using magneto and inertial sensing technology. A magneto-inertial measurement unit typically embeds a triaxial gyroscope, a triaxial accelerometer, and a triaxial magnetic sensor in the same assembly. By combining the information provided by each sensor within a sensor fusion framework, it is possible to determine the unit orientation with respect to a common global coordinate system. Recent advances in the construction of microelectromechanical system devices have made possible the manufacturing of small and light devices. These advances have widened the range of possible applications to include areas such as human movement. This chapter aims at providing the reader with a picture of the state of the art in the measurement and estimation methods for the description of human joint kinematics using magneto-inertial sensing technology. In the first section, fundamental concepts of rigid body kinematics are introduced with special reference to magneto-inertial measurements. Then a short description of the operational characteristics of accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers is provided. The third section reports theory and methods for the estimation of the orientation and position of magneto-inertial measurement units along with the implementation of a Kalman filter for 3D orientation estimate as an example. In the last section, a critical review of the most common methodologies for the joint kinematic estimation is reported.

Keywords

Joint mechanics Acceleration Angular velocity Orientation Position Multi-segmental model Multibody Anatomical coordinate system Joint kinematics Wearable sensors Kalman filter Pose 

Abbreviations

ALI

Anatomical landmark identification

ARW

Angle Random Walk

ACS

Anatomical coordinate system

BCS

Body-fixed coordinate system

CoR

Center of rotation

CS

Coordinate system

DoFs

Degree of freedom

EKF

Extended Kalman filter

FUN

Functional

KF

Kalman filter

GCS

Global coordinate system

IMU

Inertial measurement unit

MCS

MIMU coordinate system

MEMS

Microelectromechanical systems

(M)IMU

(Magneto)-inertial measurement unit

MUL

Manual Unit Alignment

NEMS

Nano-electromechanical systems

VRW

Velocity Random Walk

〈⋅, ⋅〉

Dot product between vectors

Quaternion multiplication

[q×]

Skew-symmetric operator

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Cereatti
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ugo Della Croce
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angelo M. Sabatini
    • 4
  1. 1.Department POLCOMINGUniversity of SassariSassariItaly
  2. 2.Interuniversity Centre of Bioengineering of the Human Neuromusculoskeletal SystemUniversity of SassariSassariItaly
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and TelecommunicationsPolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly
  4. 4.The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • William Scott Selbie
    • 1
  1. 1.Has-Motion Inc.KingstonCanada

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