The Segmental Movements in Front Crawl Swimming

  • Ross H. Sanders
  • Jordan T. Andersen
  • Hideki Takagi
Reference work entry


This chapter explores the cooperative coordination of segmental motions that optimizes performance in front crawl swimming. The chapter reveals how understanding of swimming technique and performance has advanced through the application of technology. The mystery of how propulsion is achieved in human swimming is being unraveled through observation of water flow associated with upper and lower limb motions using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with video-based three-dimensional analysis of swimming motions. These methods are supplemented with direct pressure measurement of forces acting on the hands and feet and in combination provide input for computer simulations and programmed swimming actions of robots. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of propulsion emerging from these coordinated approaches will translate into improved coaching methods for sprint and distance swimming with consideration of the energy cost and physiological constraints.


Freestyle swimming Computational fluid dynamics Robotics Particle image velocimetry Three-dimensional motion analysis Pressure measurement Swim coaching Sports technology 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross H. Sanders
    • 1
  • Jordan T. Andersen
    • 1
  • Hideki Takagi
    • 2
  1. 1.Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaIbarakiJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Gert-Peter Brüggemann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomechanics and OrthopaedicsGerman Sport University CologneKölnGermany

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