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Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome (MetS), also known as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, is defined by the combination of insulin resistance, abdominal fat distribution, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. The coexistence of these risk factors leads to an excess cardiovascular disease morbidity. MetS is an emerging public health and clinical challenge worldwide, caused by the hypercaloric diet and sedentary lifestyle of today’s population.

MetS means a proinflammatory or prothrombic condition, comprising, for example, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, elevated levels of uric acid, and a shift toward small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles. An association between the occurrence of MetS and the polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been described.

In this article, we review current data about the MetS and related diseases. We focus especially on the hepatic damage that is caused by MetS, and thus we describe animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) giving insights into the mechanisms of NAFLD, and we also provide information about the neoplastic final common path, namely, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

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Abbreviations

AACE:

American Association of Clinic Endocrinologists

ALD:

Alcoholic liver disease

ATF6:

Activating transcription factor-6

BMI:

Body mass index

CARDIA:

Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults

CBS:

Cystathionine beta-synthetase

CCC:

Cholangiocellular carcinoma

CEA:

Carcinoembryonic antigen

CRP:

C-reactive protein

CVD:

Cardiovascular disease

DDC:

3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine

EBV:

Epstein-Barr virus

EGIR:

European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance

ER:

Endoplasmic reticulum

FATP:

Fatty acid transporter protein

FLC:

Fibrolamellar carcinoma

FLS mice:

Fatty liver Shionogi mice

HBV:

Hepatitis B virus

HCC:

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV:

Hepatitis C virus

HDL:

High-density lipoprotein

HepPar1:

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1

HFDs:

High-fat diets

IDF:

International Diabetes Federation

IGF2:

Insulin-like growth factor 2

IR:

Insulin resistance

JNC 7:

Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

LDL:

Low-density lipoprotein

LpL:

Lipoprotein lipase

MAT1A:

Methionine adenosyltransferase 1 alpha

MCD:

Methionine- and choline-deficient diet

MCR4:

Melanocortin 4 receptor

MDBs:

Mallory-Denk bodies

MetS:

Metabolic syndrome

NAFLD:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NASH:

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

NCEO/ATP:

National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel

PERK:

PKR-like ER kinase

PTEN:

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

SH-HCC:

Steatohepatitic HCC

SREBP:

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein

T2DM:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

VLDL:

Very low-density lipoprotein

WHO:

World Health Organization

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Smolle, E., Kessler, S.M., Golob, N., Haybaeck, J. (2015). Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. In: Ahima, R. (eds) Metabolic Syndrome. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12125-3_36-1

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  1. Latest

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Published:
    19 September 2023

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12125-3_36-2

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    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
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    15 July 2015

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12125-3_36-1