Advertisement

Crewmember Interactions in Space

Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

It is important for space crews to have good interpersonal relationships and open channels of communication. Crewmember interactions can be affected by factors inherent in the mission itself, by individual differences, and by group issues related to culture and family. Good interactions can improve morale, well-being, and the accomplishment of mission goals. Poor interactions can lead to group tension, lack of cohesion, withdrawal and territorial behavior, subgrouping and scapegoating, displacement of negative affect to others, and improper use of leadership. By understanding these interactive issues and developing ways of selecting and training crewmembers to relate better with one another, the chances for mission success are improved, and space travelers can have a more positive experience during their journey.

References

  1. Bechtel RB, Berning A (1991) The third-quarter phenomenon: do people experience discomfort after stress has passed? In: Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP (eds) From Antarctica to outer space. Springer, New York, pp 261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belew LF (1977) Skylab, our first space station. NASA SP-400. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson J (1996) Conversations with Norman Thagard. Aerosp Am 34:12–14Google Scholar
  4. Boyd JE, Kanas NA, Salnitskiy VP, Gushin VI, Saylor SA, Weiss DS, Marmar CR (2009) Cultural differences in crewmembers and mission control personnel during two space station programs. Aviat Space Environ Med 80:1–9Google Scholar
  5. Chidester TR, Helmreich RL, Gregorich E, Geis CE (1991) Pilot personality and crew coordination: implications for training and selection. Int J Aviat Psychol 1:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. Space Studies Board. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Application. National Research Council (1998) A strategy for research in space biology and medicine in the new century. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Connors MM, Harrison AA, Atkins FR (1985) Living aloft: human requirements for extended spaceflight. NASA SP-483. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper HSF Jr (1976) A house in space. Holt, Rhinehart & Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunlap RD (1965) The selection and training of crewmen for an isolation and confinement study in the Douglas space cabin simulator. No. 3446. Douglas Aircraft Co, Santa Monica, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  10. Finney B (1991) Scientists and seamen. In: Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP (eds) From Antarctica to outer space. Springer, New York, pp 89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gunderson EKE (1968) Mental health problems in Antarctica. Arch Environ Health 17:558–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gushin VI, Pustinnikova JM (2001) Mutual perception in national and international groups under prolonged isolation. In: Baranov VM (ed) Simulation of extended isolation: advances and problems. Firm Slovo, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  13. Gushin VI, Zaprisa NS, Kolinitchenko TB, Efimov VA, Smirnova TM, Vinokhodova AG, Kanas N (1997) Content analysis of the crew communication with external communicants under prolonged isolation. Aviat Space Environ Med 68:1093–1098Google Scholar
  14. Gushin VI, Efimov VA, Smirnova TM, Vinokhodova AG, Kanas N (1998) Subject’s perception of the crew interaction dynamics under prolonged isolation. Aviat Space Environ Med 69:556–561Google Scholar
  15. Gushin VI, Pustynnikova JM, Smirnova TM (2001) Interrelations between the small isolated groups with homogeneous and heterogeneous composition. Hum Perf Extrem Environ 6:26–33Google Scholar
  16. Haythorn WW (1970) Interpersonal stress in isolated groups. In: McGrath JE (ed) Social and psychological factors in stress. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Haythorn WW, Altman I (1963) Alone together. Research task MR022-01-03-1002. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, U.S. Navy Department, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Haythorn WW, McGrath JE, Hollander EP, Latané B, Helmreich R, Radloff R (1972) Group processes and interpersonal interaction. In: Space Science Board (ed) Human factors in long-duration spaceflight. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Helmreich RL (2000) Culture and error in space: implications from analog environments. Aviat Space Environ Med 71(9 Suppl):A133–A139Google Scholar
  20. Ihle EC, Ritsher JB, Kanas N (2006) Positive psychological outcomes of spaceflight: an empirical study. Aviat Space Environ Med 77:93–101Google Scholar
  21. Inoue N, Matsuzaki I, Ohshima H (2004) Group interactions in SFINCSS-99: lessons for improving behavioral support programs. Aviat Space Environ Med 75(7 Suppl):C28–C35Google Scholar
  22. Jackson JK, Wamsley JR, Bonura MS, Seeman JS (1972) Program operational summary. Operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system. NASA CR-1 835. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson PJ (2013) The roles of NASA, U.S. astronauts, and their families in long-duration missions. In: Vakoch DA (ed) On-orbit and beyond: psychological perspectives on human spaceflight. Springer, Berlin, pp 69–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kahn PM, Leon GR (1994) Group climate and individual functioning in an all-women Antarctic expedition team. Environ Behav 26:669–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanas N (1990) Psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal aspects of long-duration space missions. J Spacecr Rocket 27:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kanas N (2015) Humans in space: the psychological hurdles. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kanas N, Feddersen WE (1971) Behavioral, psychiatric, and sociological problems of long-duration space missions. NASA TM X-58067. NASA/Johnson Space Center, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanas N, Manzey D (2008) Space psychology and psychiatry, 2nd edn. Microcosm Press/Springer, El Segundo/DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanas N, Weiss DS, Marmar CR (1996) Crewmember interactions during a Mir space station simulation. Aviat Space Environ Med 67:969–975Google Scholar
  30. Kanas N, Salnitskiy V, Grund EM, Gushin V, Weiss DS, Kozerenko O, Sled A, Marmar CR (2000) Interpersonal and cultural issues involving crews and ground personnel during Shuttle/Mir space missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 71(9 Suppl):A11–A16Google Scholar
  31. Kanas N, Salnitskiy V, Weiss DS, Grund EM, Gushin V, Kozerenko O, Sled A, Bostrom A, Marmar CR (2001) Crewmember and ground personnel interactions over time during Shuttle/Mir space missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 72:453–461Google Scholar
  32. Kanas NA, Salnitskiy VP, Boyd JE, Gushin VI, Weiss DS, Saylor SA, Kozerenk OP, Marmar CR (2007) Crewmember and mission control personnel interactions during International Space Station missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 78:601–607Google Scholar
  33. Kanas N, Sandal G, Boyd JE, Gushin VI, Manzey D et al (2009) Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions. Acta Astronaut 64:659–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kass R, Kass J (2001) Team-work during long-term isolation: SFINCSS experiment GP-006. In: Baranov VM (ed) Simulation of extended isolation: advances and problems. Firm Slovo, MoscowzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. Kelly AD, Kanas N (1992) Crewmember communication in space: a survey of astronauts and cosmonauts. Aviat Space Environ Med 63:721–726Google Scholar
  36. Kelly AD, Kanas N (1993) Communication between space crews and ground personnel: a survey of astronauts and cosmonauts. Aviat Space Environ Med 64:779–800Google Scholar
  37. Lebedev V (1988) Diary of a cosmonaut: 211 days in space. Phytoresource Research Information Service, College StationGoogle Scholar
  38. Leon GR (2005) Men and women in space. Aviat Space Environ Med 76(6 Suppl):B84–B88Google Scholar
  39. Leon GR, Kanfer R, Hoffman RG, Dupre L (1994) Group processes and task effectiveness in a Soviet-American expedition team. Environ Behav 26:149–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Linenger JM (2000) Off the planet: surviving five perilous months aboard the space station Mir. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. McDonnell Douglas (1968) 60-Day manned test of a regenerative life support system with oxygen and water recovery. Part II: aerospace medicine and man-machine test results. NASA CR-98501. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  42. McFadden TJ, Helmreich RL, Rose RM, Fogg LF (1994) Predicting astronaut effectiveness: a multivariate approach. Aviat Space Environ Med 65:904–909Google Scholar
  43. Miller JW, Van Derwalker IG, Waller RA (1971) Tektite 2: scientists-in-the-sea. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Mullane M (2006) Riding rockets: the outrageous tales of a space shuttle astronaut. Scribner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Nechaev AP, Polyakov VV, Morukov BV (2007) Martian manned mission: what cosmonauts think about this. Acta Astronaut 60:351–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oberg JE (1981) Red star in orbit. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Palinkas LA, Suedfeld P, Steel GD (1995) Psychological functioning among members of a small polar expedition. Aviat Space Environ Med 66:943–950Google Scholar
  48. Palinkas LA, Gunderson EKE, Holland AW, Miller C, Johnson JC (2000a) Predictors of behavior and performance in extreme environments: the Antarctic space analogue program. Aviat Space Environ Med 71:619–625Google Scholar
  49. Palinkas LA, Gunderson EKE, Johnson JC, Holland AW (2000b) Behavior and performance on long-duration spaceflights: evidence from analogue environments. Aviat Space Environ Med 71(9 Suppl):A29–A36Google Scholar
  50. Peeters W, Sciacovelli S (1996) Communication related aspects in multinational missions: Euromir 94. J Br Interplanet Soc 49:113–120Google Scholar
  51. Raybeck D (1991) Proxemics and privacy: managing the problems of life in confined environments. In: Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP (eds) From Antarctica to outer space. Springer, New York, pp 317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rivolier J, Cazes G, McCormick I (1991) The international biomedical expedition to the Antarctic: psychological evaluations of the field party. In: Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP (eds) From Antarctica to outer space. Springer, New York, pp 283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Robinson JA, Slack KJ, Olson V, Trenchard MH, Wilis KJ, Baskin PJ, Boyd JE (2013) Patterns in crew-initiated photography of Earth from the ISS: is Earth observation a salutogenic experience? In: Vakoch DA (ed) On-orbit and beyond: psychological perspectives on human spaceflight. Springer, Berlin, pp 51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rohrer JH (1958) Some impressions of psychic adjustment for polar isolation. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. U.S. Navy Department, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. Rosnet E, Jurion S, Cazes G, Bachelard C (2004) Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment. Aviat Space Environ Med 75(7 Suppl):C10–C13Google Scholar
  56. Sandal GM (2000) Coping in Antarctica: is it possible to generalize results across settings? Aviat Space Environ Med 71(9 Suppl):A37–A43Google Scholar
  57. Sandal GM (2004) Culture and tension during an International Space Station simulation: results from SFINCSS’99. Aviat Space Environ Med 75(7 Suppl):C44–C51Google Scholar
  58. Sandal GM, Manzey D (2009) Cross-cultural issues in space operations: a survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency. Acta Astronaut 65:1520–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sandal GM, Vaernes R, Ursin H (1995) Interpersonal relations during simulated space missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 66:617–624Google Scholar
  60. Santy PA, Holland AW, Looper L, Marcondes-North R (1993) Multicultural factors in the space environment: results of an international shuttle crew debrief. Aviat Space Environ Med 64:196–200Google Scholar
  61. Steel GD, Suedfeld P (1991) Temporal patterns of affect in an isolated group. Environ Behav 23:749–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stuster J (1996) Bold endeavors: lessons from polar and space exploration. Naval Institute Press, AnnapolisGoogle Scholar
  63. Stuster J (2010) Behavioral issues associated with long-duration space expeditions: review and analysis of astronaut journals. Experiment 01-E104 (journals): final report. NASA/TM-2010-216130. NASA/Johnson Space Center, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  64. Stuster J, Bachelard C, Suedfeld P (2000) The relative importance of behavioral issues during long-duration ICE missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 71(9 Suppl):A17–A25Google Scholar
  65. Suedfeld P, Legkaia K, Brcic J (2010) Changes in the hierarchy of value references associated with flying in space. J Pers 78:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Taylor AJW (1991) The research program of the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA) and its implications for research in outer space. In: Harrison AA, Clearwater YA, McKay CP (eds) From Antarctica to outer space. Springer, New York, pp 43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tomi L, Kealey D, Lange M, Stefanowska P, Doyle V (2007) Cross-cultural training requirements for long-duration space missions: results of a survey of International Space Station astronauts and ground support personnel. Paper delivered at the human interactions in space symposium, Beijing, 21 May 2007Google Scholar
  68. Vaernes RJ (1993) EXEMSI’92 executive summary. NUTEC report 16-03. European Space Agency Long Term Programme Office, ParisGoogle Scholar
  69. Walford RL, Bechtel R, MacCallum T, Paglia DE, Weber LJ (1996) “Biospheric medicine” as viewed from the two-year first closure of biosphere 2. Aviat Space Environ Med 67:609–617Google Scholar
  70. Wall M (2011) Russian official says there’s been no sex in space…yet. NBCNews.com, 23 April 2011. http://​www.​nbcnews.​com/​id/​42731409/​ns/​technology_​and_​science-space/​. Accessed 23 Apr 2011
  71. Wood J-A, Lugg DJ, Hysong SJ, Harm DL (1999) Psychological changes in hundred-day remote Antarctic field groups. Environ Behav 31:299–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wood J, Schmidt L, Lugg D, Ayton J, Phillips T, Shepanek M (2005) Life, survival, and behavioral health in small closed communities: 10 years of studying isolated Antarctic groups. Aviat Space Environ Med 76(6 Suppl):B89–B93Google Scholar
  73. Woodmansee LS (2006) Sex in space. CG Publishing, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  74. Wu R, Wang Y (2014) Psychosocial interaction during a 105-day isolated mission in LUNAR PALACE 1. Paper IAC-14-A1.1.2. 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, 23 September–3 October 2014Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • David F. Dinges
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pennsylvania Perelman School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations