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Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Exercise

Definition

Cardiovascular deconditioning are changes in function or structure of the heart and blood vessels in response to a space flight or reduced gravity environment, including weightlessness and radiation exposure, that may result in impaired or altered responses at rest or during stress. Exercise includes physical activity to prevent deconditioning during space flight or reduced gravity as well as the physical work required to perform work inside and outside of the spacecraft.

Introduction

Human physiological responses are well designed to operate in Earth’s gravitational environment in which we exist, yet standing up on Earth imposes a substantial challenge to the cardiovascular system because the heart is located above about 75% of the total blood volume in the body. Upon standing, the increase in the hydrostatic pressure gradient acting along the length of the body reduces the amount of blood returning to the heart by 500–1000 mL, which triggers a complex reflex response...

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Fig. 1

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Stenger, M.B., Laurie, S.S., Lee, S.M.C., Platts, S.H. (2019). Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Exercise. In: Young, L., Sutton, J. (eds) Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_20-1

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    Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Exercise
    Published:
    23 October 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_20-2

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    Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Exercise
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    10 November 2018

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_20-1