Advertisement

Stress, Kindling and PTSD: Typical Symptoms of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Antiepileptic Medication

  • Petr BobEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

According to recent reported findings, stress experiences are related to neurobiological processes that may have lasting consequences and significantly influence brain functions. These stress experiences may lead to cognitive and emotional dysregulation related to deficits in inhibitory functions and increased limbic excitability that may cause temporo-limbic seizure-like activity and specific changes in neural dynamics and complexity of neural networks. These findings indicate that stress-activated limbic kindling may be involved in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder and some other psychiatric disorders which may explain the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs.

Keywords

Anticonvulsants PTSD Sensitization Stress Kindling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the grant GACR P407/12/1957 and the project “CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology” (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068) from European Regional Development Fund.

References

  1. Adamec RE. Does kindling model anything clinically relevant? Biol Psychiatry. 1990;27:249–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson CM, Teicher MH, Polcari A, Renshaw PF. Abnormal T2 relaxation time in the cerebellar vermis of adults sexually abused in childhood: potential role of the vermis in stress-enhanced risk for drug abuse. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002;27:231–44.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28:403–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benes FM, Berretta S. GABAergic interneurons: implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:1–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berlin HA. Antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007;14:185–9.Google Scholar
  6. Bob P, Palus M, Susta M, et al. Sensitization, epileptic-like symptoms and local synchronization in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010a;34:143–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bob P, Susta M, Gregusova A, et al. Traumatic stress, dissociation, and limbic irritability in patients with unipolar depression being treated with SSRIs. Psychol Rep. 2010b;107:685–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bob P, Jasova D, Raboch J. Subclinical epileptiform process in patients with unipolar depression and its indirect psychophysiological manifestations. PLoS One. 2011a;6(11):e28041.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bob P, Jasova D, Bizik G, Raboch J. Epileptiform activity in alcohol dependent patients and possibilities of its indirect measurement. PLoS One. 2011b;6:e18678.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bogdan R, Pizzagalli DA. Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: implications for depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:1147–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bremner JD. Stress and brain atrophy. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006;5:503–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Cole DA, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus J, et al. Stress exposure and stress generation in child and adolescent depression: a latent trait-state-error approach to longitudinal analyses. J Abnorm Psychol. 2006;115:40–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Collip D, Myin-Germeys I, Van Os J. Does the concept of “sensitization” provide a plausible mechanism for the putative link between the environment and schizophrenia? Schizophr Bull. 2008;34:220–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa E, Davis JM, Dong E, et al. A GABAergic cortical deficit dominates schizophrenia pathophysiology. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2004;16:1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawson KA. Temporal organization of the brain: neurocognitive mechanisms. Brain Cogn. 2004;54:75–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Duman RS, Monteggia LM. A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:1116–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gabriel A. Lamotrigine adjunctive treatment in resistant unipolar depression: an open, descriptive study. Depress Anxiety. 2006;23:485–8.Google Scholar
  18. Glenthoj BY, Hemmingsen R. Dopaminergic sensitization: implications for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1997;21:23–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Goddard GV. Development of epileptic seizures through brain stimulation at low intensity. Nature. 1967;214:1020–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gonzalez-Burgos G, Lewis DA. GABA neurons and the mechanisms of network oscillations: implications for understanding cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34:944–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Gordon JA, Hen R. The serotonergic system and anxiety. Neuromolecular Med. 2004;5:27–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Grossman AW, Churchill JD, McKinney BC, et al. Experience effects on brain development: possible contributions to psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44:33–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Heath RG. Brain function in epilepsy: midbrain, medullary, and cerebellar interaction with the rostral forebrain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1976;39:1037–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Heckers S, Konradi C. Hippocampal neurons in schizophrenia. J Neural Transm. 2002;109:891–905.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Hines M, Swan C, Roberts RJ, et al. Characteristics and mechanisms of epilepsy spectrum disorder: an explanatory model. Appl Neuropsychol. 1995;2:1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ito Y, Teicher M, Gold C, et al. Increased prevalence of electrophysiological abnormalities in children with psychological, physical and sexual abuse. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993;5:401–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacob TC, Moss SJ, Jurd R. GABAA receptor trafficking and its role in the dynamic modulation of neuronal inhibition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:331–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Johannessen LC. Antiepileptic drugs in non-epilepsy disorders: relations between mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CNS Drugs. 2008;22:27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jones EG. GABAergic neurons and their role in cortical plasticity in primates. Cereb Cortex. 1993;3:361–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaufman KR. Antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;21:1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Keller MB. Past, present, and future directions for defining optimal treatment outcome in depression: remission and beyond. JAMA. 2003;289:3152–60.Google Scholar
  32. Kraus JE. Sensitization phenomena in psychiatric illness: lessons from the kindling model. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;12:328–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kruglikov I, Rudy B. Perisomatic GABA release and thalamocortical integration onto neocortical excitatory cells are regulated by neuromodulators. Neuron. 2008;58:911–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. McCrory E, De Brito SA, Viding E. Research review: the neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51:1079–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Möhler H. GABAA receptor diversity and pharmacology. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;326:505–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Monroe SM, Harkness KL. Life stress, the “kindling” hypothesis, and the recurrence of depression: considerations from a life stress perspective. Psychol Rev. 2005;112:417–45.Google Scholar
  37. Morishita S. Clonazepam as a therapeutic adjunct to improve the management of depression: a brief review. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:191–8.Google Scholar
  38. Phillips TJ, Roberts AJ, Lessov CN. Behavioral sensitization to ethanol: genetics and the effects of stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;57:487–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Post RM. Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:999–1010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Post RM, Weiss SRB. A speculative model of affective illness cyclicity based on patterns of drug tolerance observed in amygdala-kindled seizures. Mol Neurobiol. 1996;13:33–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Post RM, Weiss RB. Sensitization and kindling phenomena in mood, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders: the role of serotonergic mechanisms in illness progression. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:193–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Post RM, Weiss SR, Pert A. Implications of behavioral sensitization and kindling for stress induced behavioral change. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988;245:441–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Post RM, Weis SR, Smith MA. Sensitization and kindling. In: Friedman MJ, Charney DS, Deutch AY, editors. Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: from normal adaptation to posttraumatic stress disorder. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1995.Google Scholar
  44. Post RM, Weiss SRB, Smith M, et al. Kindling versus quenching. Implications for the evolution and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;821:285–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Post RM, Weiss SR, Li H, et al. Sensitization components of post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for therapeutics. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 1999;4:282–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Putnam F. Dissociation in children and adolescents. A developmental perspective. London/New York: The Guilford Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  47. Riklan M, Kabat C, Cooper IS. Psychological effects of short term cerebellar stimulation in epilepsy. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1976;162:282–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Roberts RJ, Gorman LL, Lee GP, et al. The phenomenology of multiple partial seizure like symptoms without stereotyped spells: an epilepsy spectrum disorder? Epilepsy Res. 1992;13:167–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Roca V, Freeman TV. Psychosensory symptoms in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;14:185–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Schutter DLJG, van Honk J. An electrophysiological link between the cerebellum, cognition and emotion: frontal theta EEG activity to single-pulse cerebellar TMS. Neuroimage. 2006;33:1227–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Segal ZV, Williams JM, Teasdale JD, et al. A cognitive science perspective on kindling and episode sensitization in recurrent affective disorder. Psychol Med. 1996;26:371–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Silberman E, Post R, Nurenberger J, Theodore W, et al. Transient sensory, cognitive, and affective phenomena in affective illness: a comparison with complex partial epilepsy. Br J Psychiatry. 1985;146:81–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Spaulding AM. A pharmacotherapeutic approach to the management of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. J Pharm Pract. 2012;25:541–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Spigelman I, Li Z, Banerjee PK, Mihalek RM, et al. Behavior and physiology of mice lacking the GABAA-receptor delta subunit. Epilepsia. 2002;43:3–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stam CJ. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of EEG and MEG: review of an emerging field. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:2266–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Stevens JR. Epilepsy, schizophrenia and the extended amygdala. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;156:548–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stevens JR. Schizophrenia: reproductive hormones and the brain. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:713–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Teicher MH, Glod CA, Surrey J, et al. Early childhood abuse and limbic system ratings in adult psychiatric outpatients. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993;5:301–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Teicher MH, Andersen SL, Polcari A, et al. The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003;27:33–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Teicher MH, Tomoda A, Andersen SE. Neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment: are results from human and animal studies comparable? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1071:313–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K, Kiviniemi V. The efficacy of lamotrigine in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2009;109:10–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Tirsch WS, Stude P, Scherb H, et al. Temporal order of nonlinear dynamics in human brain. Brain Res Rev. 2004;45:79–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. van Drongelen W, Lee HC, Hereld M, et al. Emergent epileptiform activity in neural networks with weak excitatory synapses. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2005;13:236–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Varela F, Lachaux JP, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J. The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2:229–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Varney NR, Garvey MJ, Cook BL, et al. Identification of treatment-resistant depressives who respond favorably to carbamazepine. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1993;5:117–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Vigo DV, Baldessarini RJ. Anticonvulsants in the treatment of major depressive disorder: an overview. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009;17:231–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Watts BV, Schnurr PP, Mayo L, et al. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:e541–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Weng G, Bhalla US, Iyengar R. Complexity in biological signaling systems. Science. 1999;284:92–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Yuii K, Suzuki M, Kurachi M. Stress sensitization in schizophrenia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1113:276–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of PsychiatryCharles University, First Faculty of MedicinePragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations