Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Trajectories After Disasters: Adult and Child Reactions

  • Betty S. LaiEmail author
  • Brooke A. Beaulieu
  • Constance E. Ogokeh
  • Ashwini Tiwari
  • Shannon Self-Brown
Reference work entry


Exposure to natural disasters may lead to the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in both adults and children. However, PTSS may unfold differently between people. Recent advances in research have led to an increased understanding of prototypical PTSS trajectories. Among adults and children alike, the presence of one or multiple risk factors may increase risk for falling in more severe PTSS trajectories. Protective factors may serve to mitigate the effects of disaster exposure, improving the likelihood of a positive trajectory after a disaster. This chapter discusses PTSS trajectories typically identified after disasters. Risk and protective factors that may affect the course of response among adults and children are discussed. Recommendations for clinicians and policy makers are also provided.


Natural disasters Man-made disasters Growth mixture modeling Trajectories Children Adults Risk factor Protective factor Clustering Measurement 

List of Abbreviation


Post-traumatic stress symptoms


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betty S. Lai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brooke A. Beaulieu
    • 1
  • Constance E. Ogokeh
    • 1
  • Ashwini Tiwari
    • 2
  • Shannon Self-Brown
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Health Promotion and Behavior, School of Public HealthGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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