PTSD After Anesthesia: Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Proposed Treatments

  • Paola AcetoEmail author
  • Carlo Lai
Reference work entry


This chapter fulfills the needs of healthcare providers to have essential information on PTSD after an awareness episode which may occur during general anesthesia. Patients’ symptoms that must induce the suspicious of PTSD will be described in detail. Further discussion will then focus on criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD, type and timing of assessment due, and proposed treatments strategies for PTSD after anesthesia.


Stress Post-traumatic Anesthesia Awareness Explicit memory Implicit memory 

List of Abbreviations


Bispectral index


Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition


Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing


Post-traumatic stress syndrome


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors


Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive CareGemelli HospitalRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Dynamic and Clinical PsychologyUniversity of Rome “Sapienza”RomeItaly

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