Skip to main content

3D Avatars in Virtual Reality Experience

  • 86 Accesses


3D Avatars; Digital humans; Immersive technologies; Virtual reality


3D Avatar is a representation of human users in a Virtual reality environment. It represents the body of the user, interaction of the user with the surrounding environment, and other users in the virtual world to enhance the realism of the overall experience. It facilitates collaboration among various users and the virtual environment in multiplayer games, remote collaboration meetings, virtual events, immersive learning classes, and many such applications.


Remote collaboration and remote interaction with peers are rising steadily due to their apparent advantages of cost-saving, convenience, and scalability. Immersive technology such as virtual reality transforms the remote collaboration experiences through its unique features such as presence and realistic interactions.

Virtual reality, typically called VR, is a simulation of a new environment with visuals and interactions created...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Balamurugan, C.R.: Hologram based three dimensional projection. 6th Int Conf Res Trends Eng Appl Sci Manag, 763–768 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  • Berdic, N., Dragan, D., Mihic, S., Anisic, Z.: Creation and usage of 3D full body avatars. Ann Fac Eng Hunedoara. 15, 29–34 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bredikhina, L., Kameoka, T., Shimbo, S., Shirai, A.: Avatar driven VR society trends in Japan. In: Proceedings – 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces, VRW 2020, pp. 497–503 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  • Čeliković, D., Batalo, B., Radisavljević, D., Dragan, D., Anišić, Z.: 3D avatar platform — a unique configurator for 3D figurine customization. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mass Customization and Personalization in Central Europe MCP-CE pp. 19–21. (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  • Fribourg, R., Argelaguet, F., Lécuyer, A., Hoyet, L.: Avatar and sense of embodiment: studying the relative preference between appearance, control and point of view. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 26, 2062–2072 (2020).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gomes de Siqueira, A., Feijóo-García, P.G., Stuart, J., Lok, B.: Toward facilitating team formation and communication through avatar based interaction in desktop-based immersive virtual environments. Front Virtual Real. 2, 1–18 (2021).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez-Franco, M., Steed, A., Hoogendyk, S., Ofek, E.: Using facial animation to increase the enfacement illusion and avatar self-identification. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 26, 2023–2029 (2020).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jauhiainen, J.S.: Entrepreneurship and innovation events during the COVID-19 pandemic: the user preferences of VirBELA virtual 3D platform at the SHIFT event organized in Finland. Sustain. 13 (2021).

  • Jo, D., Kim, K., Welch, G.F., et al.: The impact of avatar-owner visual similarity on body ownership in immersive virtual reality. Proc ACM Symp Virtual Real Softw Technol VRST Part, F1319 (2017).

  • Kolkmeier, J., Reidsma, D., Harmsen, E., et al.: With a little help from a holographic friend: the OpenIMPRESS mixed reality telepresence toolkit for remote collaboration systems. Proc ACM Symp Virtual Real Softw Technol VRST. (2018).

  • Kreskowski, A., Beck, S., Froehlich, B.: Output-sensitive avatar representations for immersive telepresence. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. X, 1–13 (2020).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Latoschik, M.E., Roth, D., Gall, D., et al.: The effect of avatar realism in immersive social virtual realities. Proc ACM Symp Virtual Real Softw Technol VRST Part, F1319 (2017).

  • Liu, Q. Contextual Group Walkthrough: Social VR Platform Comparison and Evaluation (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogawa, N., Narumi, T., Hirose, M.: Object size perception in immersive virtual reality: avatar realism affects the way we perceive. In: 25th IEEE Conf Virtual Real 3D User Interfaces, VR 2018 – Proc, pp. 647–648 (2018).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pangilinan, E., Lukas, S., Mohan, V.: Creating Augmented and Virtual Realities: Theory and Practice for Next-Generation Spatial Computing, First. O’Reilly Media, Inc (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  • Porter and Heppelmann: A Manager’s guide to augmented reality. Harv. Bus. Rev., 85 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao, M., Dawarwadikar, M.: Immersive visualizations using augmented reality and virtual reality. In: Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosa, N., Hürst, W., Veltkamp, R., Werkhoven, P.: Player-avatar link: interdisciplinary embodiment perspectives. Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games, 1–6 (2018).

  • Suzuki, K., Nakamura, F., Otsuka, J., et al.: Recognition and mapping of facial expressions to avatar by embedded photo reflective sensors in head mounted display. Proc – IEEE Virtual Real, 177–185 (2017).

  • Wauck, H., Lucas, G., Shapiro, A., et al.: Analyzing the effect of avatar self-similarity on men and women in a search and rescue game. Conf Hum Factors Comput Syst – Proc 2018-April, 1–12 (2018).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manoj Dawarwadikar .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Dawarwadikar, M., Rao, M. (2022). 3D Avatars in Virtual Reality Experience. In: Lee, N. (eds) Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-08234-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-08234-9

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Computer SciencesReference Module Computer Science and Engineering