Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games

Living Edition
| Editors: Newton Lee


  • Keith NesbittEmail author
  • Eugene Nalivaiko
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_252-1



Cybersickness is an uncomfortable side effect experienced by users of immersive interfaces commonly used for Virtual Reality. It is associated with symptoms such as nausea, postural instability, disorientation, headaches, eye-strain, and tiredness.


Cybersickness is a relatively common, unwanted side effect of immersive interfaces that causes a broad range of unpleasant symptoms such as nausea, headaches, disorientation, and tiredness. More serious symptoms, such as postural instability, although less common, can also result from prolonged exposure to virtual interfaces.

Cybersickness is typically experienced by stationary users that perceive that they are moving in a virtual scene. This stationary reality and the associated compelling experience of self-motion is believed to underlie the condition (Webb and Griffin 2003). By contrast, simulator sickness was first found in pilots who underwent extended training in flight simulators...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ali, S.: Measuring flow complexity in videos. In: Proceedings of the 2013 I.E. International Conference on Computer Video, 1097–1104, IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  2. Ames, S.L., Wolffsohn, J.S., McBrien, N.A.: The development of a symptom questionnaire for assessing virtual reality viewing using a head-mounted display. Optom. Vis. Sci. 82(3), 168–176 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beauchemin, S.S., Barron, J.L.: The computation of optical flow. ACM Comput. Surv. 27(3), 433–466 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouchard, S., Robillard, G., Renaud, P., Bernier, F.: Exploring new dimensions in the assessment of virtual reality induced side effects. J. Comput. Inf. Technol. 1(3), 20–32 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. Bruck, S., Watters, P.A.: The factor structure of cybersickness. Displays. 32(4), 153–158 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cobb, S., Nichols, S., Ramsey, A., Wilson, J.: Virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects (VRISE). Presence Teleop. Virt. 8(2), 169–186 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowings, P.S., Suter, S., Toscano, W.B., Kamiya, J., Naifeh, K.: General autonomic components of motion sickness. Psychophysiology. 23(5), 542–551 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis, S., Nesbitt, K., Nalivaiko, E.: A systematic review of cybersickness. In: Proceedings of Interactive Entertainment (IE2014), Newcastle, Australia. ACM, New York (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2677758.2677780 Google Scholar
  9. Davis, S., Nesbitt, K., Nalivaiko, E.: Comparing the onset of cybersickness using the Oculus Rift and two virtual roller coasters. In: Pisan, Y., Nesbitt, K. Blackmore, K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment (IE 2015) Sydney, Australia. CRPIT, 167, ACS, 3–14 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. Dennison, M.S., Wisti, A.Z., D’Zmura, M.: Use of physiological signals to predict cybersickness. Displays. 44, 42–52 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durlach, N.I., Mavor, A.S.: Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. National Academies Press, Washington, DC (1994).  https://doi.org/10.17226/4761 Google Scholar
  12. Gavgani, A.M., Nesbitt, K.V., Blackmore, K.L., Nalivaiko, E.: Profiling subjective symptoms and autonomic changes associated with cybersickness. Auton. Neurosci. 203, 41–50 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gianaros, P.J., Muth, E.R., Mordkoff, J.T., Levine, M.E., Stern, R.: A questionnaire for the assessment of the multiple dimensions of motion sickness. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 72(2), 115–119 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. Golding, J.F.: Motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire revised and its relationship to other forms of sickness. Brain Res. Bull. 47, 507–516 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Graybiel, A., Wood, C.D., Miller, E.F., Cramer, D.B.: Diagnostic criteria for grading the severity of acute motion sickness. Aerosp. Med. Res Lab. 39, 453–455 (1968)Google Scholar
  16. Hardacre, L.E., Kennedy, P.: Some issues in the development of a motion sickness questionnaire for flight students. Aerosp. Med. 34, 401–402 (1963)Google Scholar
  17. Howarth, P., Costello, P.: The occurrence of virtual simulation sickness symptoms when an HMD was used as a personal viewing system. Displays. 18(2), 107–116 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahedi, S., Méndez, F.: On the advantages and disadvantages of subjective measures. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 98, 97–114 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kellogg, R.S., Kennedy, R.S., Graybiel, A.: Motion sickness symptomatology of labyrinthine defective and normal subjects during zero gravity maneuvers. Aerosp. Med. 36, 315–318 (1965)Google Scholar
  20. Kennedy, R.S., Fowlkes, J.E., Berbaium, K.S., Lilienthal, M.G.: Use of a motion sickness history questionnaire for prediction of simulator sickness. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 63, 588–559 (1992)Google Scholar
  21. Kennedy, R.S., Lane, N., Berbaum, K., Lilienthal, M.: Simulator sickness questionnaire: an enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 3(3), 203–220 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim, Y., Kim, H., Kim, E., Ko, H., Kim, H.: Characteristic changes in the physiological components of cybersickness. Psychophysiology. 42(5), 616–625 (2005)Google Scholar
  23. Kolasinski, E.M.: Simulator sickness in virtual environments. Technical report 1027. United States Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a29586.pdf. (1995). Accessed 9 Jan 2018
  24. LaViola Jr., J.J.: A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. ACM SIGCHI Bull. 32(1), 47–56 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lawson, B.D., Mead, A.M.: The sopite syndrome revisted: drowsiness and mood changes during real or apparent motion. Acta Astronaut. 43, 181–192 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McCauley, M., Sharkey, T.: Cybersickness: perception of self-motion in virtual environments. Presence Teleop. Virt. 1(3), 311–318 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muth, E.R., Stern, R.M., Thayer, J.F., Koch, K.L.: Assessment of the multiple dimensions of nausea: the nausea profile (NF). J. Psychosom. Res. 40, 511–520 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nalivaiko, E., Rudd, J.A., So, R.H.Y.: Motion sickness, nausea and thermoregulation: the “toxic” hypothesis. Temperature. 1(3), 164–171 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nalivaiko, E., Davis, S.L., Blackmore, K.L., Vakulin, A., Nesbitt, K.V.: Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time. Physiol. Behav. 151, 583–590 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nesbitt, K., Davis, S., Blackmore, K., Nalivaiko, E.: Correlating reaction time and nausea measures with traditional measures of cybersickness. Displays. 48, 1–8 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ngampramuan, S., Cerri, M., Del Vecchio, F., Corrigan, J.J., Kamphee, A., Dragic, A.S., Rudd, J.A., Romanovsky, A.A., Nalivaiko, E.: Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews. Oncotarget. 5(6), 1565–1575 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ohyama, S., Nishiike, S., Watanabe, H., Matsuoka, K., Akizuki, H., Takeda, N., Harada, T.: Autonomic responses during motion sickness induced by virtual reality. Auris Nasus Larynx. 34(3), 303–306 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riccio, G.E., Thomas, A.S.: An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecol. Psychol. 3(3), 195–240 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith, S.P., Blackmore, K.L., Nesbitt, K.V.: Using optical flow as an objective metric of cybersickness in virtual environments. Paper presented at the Australasian Simulation Congress 2017 (ASC 2017), Sydney, 28–31 Aug 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1346847. Accessed 9 Jan 2018
  35. So, R.H., Ho, A., Lo, W.T.: A metric to quantify virtual scene movement for the study of cybersickness: definition, implementation, and verification. Presence Teleop. Virt. 10(2), 193–215 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stern, R.M., Koch, K.L., Andrews, P.: Nausea: Mechanisms and Management. Oxford University Press, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  37. Treisman, M.: Motion sickness, an evolutionary hypothesis. Science. 197, 493–495 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Webb, N.A., Griffin, M.J.: Eye movement, vection, and motion sickness with foveal and peripheral vision. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 74(6), 622–625 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.School of Biomedical Sciences and PharmacyUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia