Allograft Dysfunction

  • Carol Conrad
  • Nicolaus Schwerk
Reference work entry
Part of the Organ and Tissue Transplantation book series (OTT)


Lung transplantation is an established treatment option for children and adolescents suffering from end-stage lung diseases refractory to therapy. The primary aims, to prolong life and to improve quality of life, are reached in most cases. Improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care have led to a relevant decrease of early mortality after lung transplantation, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, long-term survival remains significantly lower compared to other solid organ transplant outcomes. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the leading cause of death in lung transplant recipients after the first year from transplantation. Increasing knowledge of pathophysiological processes and risk factors for CLAD have emerged in recent years and new definitions of CLAD subtypes have been proposed. This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of different forms of allograft dysfunction, their definition criteria and current treatment approaches.


Lung transplantation Allograft dysfunction Acute cellular rejection Antibody-mediated rejection Chronic lung allograft rejection Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome Azithromycin-responsive allograft dysfunction 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Klinik für Pädiatrische Pneumologie, Allergologie und NeonatologieMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Samuel B Goldfarb
    • 1
  1. 1.The Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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