Reference Work Entry

Optical Coherence Tomography

pp 2413-2472

Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

  • Dirk LorenserAffiliated withOptical+Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia Email author 
  • , Robert A. McLaughlinAffiliated withOptical+Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia
  • , David D. SampsonAffiliated withOptical+Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western AustraliaCentre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia

Abstract

In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2–3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

Keywords

Breast cancer Deep-tissue imaging Fiber-optic probes Imaging needle Interstitial imaging Lung imaging Microscope-in-a-needle