Communitarian bioethics aims to balance concerns for individual rights and interests that are central to liberal and libertarian bioethics with the common good that is the primary concern of authoritarian approaches to bioethics. Communitarian bioethics is founded on four principles, which are here illustrated through comparative case studies of varying global practices relating to bioethical dilemmas. These principles are preference for moral rather than financial appeals to convert attitudes into action on the individual level, the use of informal rather formal social controls to engender voluntary compliance with public policy on the community level, the promotion of moral dialogues rather than purely rational deliberation as means of discovering shared values to guide social change, and the balance of the common good with individual rights.
KeywordsAuthoritarian Communitarian Liberal Libertarian Individual rights Common good Autonomy Privacy Security Normative appeals Informal vs. formal social controls The self Moral dialogues
- Amin, E., Nelson, A., et al. (2012). Ethical issues concerning vaccination requirements. Public Health Reviews, 34(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
- AVERT. (2014). 20th international AIDS conference – July 2014. http://www.avert.org/global-hiv-aids-epidemic.htm
- Becker, G. C., & Elias, J. J. (2014). Cash for kidneys: The case for a market for organs. Wall Street Journal. 18 Jan 2014. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304149404579322560004817176. Accessed 2 Jun 2014.
- Beecher, H. K., Adams, R. D., Barger, A. C., Curran, W. J., Denny-Brown, D., Farnsworth, D. L., Folch-Pi, J., Mendelsohn, E. I., Merrill, J. P., Murray, J., Potter, R., Schwab, R., & Sweet, W. (1968). A definition of irreversibly coma: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the definition of brain death. Journal of the American Medical Association, 205(6), 337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Contagion. (2014). Historical views of diseases and epidemics. Tuberculosis in Europe and North America, 1800–1922. Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/contagion/tuberculosis.html. Accessed 21 May 2014.
- Coolen, P.R. (2012). Cultural relevance in end-of-life care. Ethnomed.org. Published 1 May. http://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/cultural-relevance-in-end-of-life-care. Accessed 24 Jun 2014.
- Etzioni, A. (1973). Genetic fix: The next technological revolution. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Joe, D. (2013). Book review of “Assisted suicide: The liberal, humanist case against legalization.” Dr Kevin Yuill (Palgrave Macmillan 2013). http://www.manchestersalon.org.uk/assisted-suicide-the-liberal-humanist-case-against-legalization.html
- Lovern, Ed. (2001). HHS launches bid for organ donations. Modern Healthcare (23 April): 21.Google Scholar
- National Survey of Organ Donation Attitudes and Behaviors. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Issued September 2013. http://organdonor.gov/dtcp/nationalsurveyorgandonation.pdf. Accessed 30 Jun 2014.
- NPR. (2014). Walgreens to offer free HIV tests in D.C. area. 25 June 2014. http://wamu.org/news/14/06/25/walgreens_to_offer_free_hiv_tests_in_dc_area. Accessed 1 Jul 2014.
- Shrage, L. (2014). Sex crimes that shouldn’t be. The New York Times. 1 Jun 2014. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/01/sex-crimes-that-shouldnt-be/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0. Accessed 23 Jun 2014.
- Emanuel, E. J. (2014). Reinventing health care: How the affordable care act will improve our terribly complex, blatantly unjust, outrageously expensive, grossly inefficient, error prone system. Philadelphia: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
- Responsive Community Platform. (1991). http://www.gwu.edu/~ccps/rcplatform.html . Accessed 2 Jun 2014.
- Sandel, M. (2009). Justice: What’s the right thing to do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
- Selznick, P. (2002). The communitarian persuasion. Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar