Drug Influence on Lower Urinary Tract

  • Susan Emeigh HartEmail author
Reference work entry


Urinary incontinence is a major psychosocial, medical, and economic problem. The most common condition to be treated pharmacologically is incontinence due to detrusor instability. The response of the urinary bladder to filling with increasing volumes of fluid (cystometrogram) is a common procedure for evaluating bladder function in both animals and humans. The response of the vesicourethral complex can be arbitrarily divided into the collection and expulsion phases. The nervous control of the detrusor and the internal and the external sphincter has been reviewed by Kuro (1965). A detailed description of the nervous control of the urinary bladder of the cat has been given by de Groat (1975). The pharmacology of lower urinary tract muscles and penile erectile tissues has been reviewed by Anderson (1993). Ferguson and Christopher (1996) reviewed urine bladder function and drug development. Urine storage and timely expulsion of bladder content are produced through the coordinated activation of a series of reflexes involving cholinergic, sympathetic, and, possibly, purinergic, serotonergic, and peptidergic innervation. In view of this complexity, in vivo models were developed for the quantitative analysis of the effects of drugs on the function of the vesicourethral complex (Maggi et al. 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987a, b, 1992).


Urinary Bladder Lower Urinary Tract Renal Pelvis Organ Bath Electrical Field Stimulation 
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References and Further Reading

In Vivo Studies

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Studies on Renal Pelvis

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Propagation of Impulses in the Guinea Pig Ureter

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Studies on Urinary Bladder and Internal Urethral Sphincter

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Effects on Isolated Urethra

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Effects on External Urethral Sphincter

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Non-Clinical Drug SafetyBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, IncRidgefieldUSA

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