Hemostasis Models: Bleeding Models

  • Shaker A. MousaEmail author
Reference work entry


There is a delicate balance between thrombosis and hemostasis – primary hemostasis (platelet plug), secondary hemostasis (fibrin clot), and fibrinolysis. On the coagulation side, a balance between procoagulants and anticoagulants and pro-fibrinolytics and anti-fibrinolytics is crucial to maintain physiological hemostasis. Similarly, on the platelet side, a balance between endogenous platelet activators and inhibitors is also critical in the maintenance of hemostasis. When using either antiplatelet or anticoagulants to prevent or treat either arterial or venous thrombosis, a risk of bleeding exists due to the shift in the balance between thrombosis and hemostasis.


Bleeding Time Antithrombotic Drug Primary Hemostasis Anesthetize Rabbit Small Mesenteric Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Further Reading

Subaqueous Tail Bleeding Time in Rodents

  1. Dejana E, Callioni A, Quintana A, DeGaetano G (1979) Bleeding time in laboratory animals: II – a comparison of different assay conditions in rats. Thromb Res 15:191–197Google Scholar
  2. Döttl K, Ripke O (1936) Blutgerinnung und Blutungszeit. In: Medizin und Chemie. Bayer, Leverkusen, pp 267–273Google Scholar
  3. Minsker DH, Kling PJ (1977) Bleeding time is prolonged by aspirin. Thromb Res 10:619–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Stella L, Donati MB, Gaetano G (1975) Bleeding time in laboratory animals. I. Aspirin does not prolong bleeding time in rats. Thromb Res 7:709–716CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Arterial Bleeding Time in Mesentery

  1. Butler KD, Maguire ED, Smith JR et al (1982) Prolongation of rat tail bleeding time caused by oral doses of a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor which have little effect on platelet aggregation. Thromb Haemost 47:46–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dejana E, Callioni A, Quintana A, de Gaetano G (1979) Bleeding time in laboratory animals. II – a comparison of different assay conditions in rats. Thromb Res 15:191–197Google Scholar
  3. Zawilska KM, Born GVR, Begent NA (1982) Effect of ADP-utilizing enzymes on the arterial bleeding time in rats and rabbits. Br J Haematol 50:317–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Template Bleeding Time Method

  1. Brassard JA, Meyers KM (1991) Evaluation of the buccal bleeding time and platelet glass bead retention as assays of hemostasis in the dog: the effects of acetylsalicylic acid, warfarin and von Willebrand factor deficiency. Thromb Haemost 65:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dejana E, Calloni A, Quintana A, deGaetano G (1979) Bleeding time in laboratory animals. II. A comparison of different assay conditions in rats. Thromb Res 15:191–197Google Scholar
  3. Forsythe LT, Willis SE (1989) Evaluating oral mucosa bleeding times in healthy dogs using a spring loaded device. Can Vet J 30:344–345PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Giles AR, Tinlin S, Greenwood R (1982) A canine model of hemophilic (factor VIII: C deficiency) bleeding. Blood 60:727–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Klement P, Liao P, Hirsh J et al (1998) Hirudin causes more bleeding than heparin in a rabbit ear bleeding model. J Lab Clin Med 132:181–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kubitza D, Becka M, Wensing G, Voith B, Zuehlsdorf M (2005) Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of BAY 59–7939–an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor–after multiple dosing in healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61(12):873–880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lind SE (1991) The bleeding time does not predict surgical bleeding. Blood 77:2547–2552PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Pharmaceutical Research InstituteAlbany College of Pharmacy and Health SciencesAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations