Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Marco Sgarbi

Ramism

  • Andrea Strazzoni
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02848-4_683-1

Abstract

The main aim of the French logician and philosopher Petrus Ramus was to provide a method of teaching the liberal arts enabling the completion of the undergraduate program of studies in 7 years. This method was based on a new logic, in which the complex structure of Aristotle’s Organon and of the Summulae logicales of Peter of Spain is reduced to two main doctrines: the invention of arguments, by which it is possible to find the notions for reasoning and disputing in any discipline, and the disposition of arguments in judgment, i.e., in propositions and syllogisms. Since this logic applies both to demonstrative and to probable reasoning, Ramus and Rudolph Agricola, who first introduced it, labeled it as dialectic. Ramus completed this twofold dialectic with a method, according to which disciplines have to be taught by providing general definitions, to be explained by subsequent dichotomous divisions. According to Ramus, this method ensures a well-ordered hierarchy and division of disciplines, and an efficient means to teach them in a shorter time than in the pedagogical programs of Juan Luis Vivès, Johann Sturm, and Philipp Melanchthon. This method had its main diffusion in the preuniversity institutions such as the German gymnasia and gymnasia illustria (e.g., of Herborn), while in Reformed and Catholic universities the acceptance of Ramism was hindered by the predominance of the Aristotelian curriculum.

Keywords

Agricola Analysis Arguments Dialectic Education Ramus Logic Method Rhetoric Sturm Trivium 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

Primary Literature

  1. Agricola, Rudolph. 1515. De inventione dialectica libri tres. Louvain: Theodoricus Martinus Alustensis.Google Scholar
  2. Agricola, Rudolph. 1518. Oratio in laudem philosophiae elegantissima. In Nonnulla opuscula. Basle: apud Andream Cratandrum, et Servatium Cruftanum.Google Scholar
  3. Agricola, Rudolph. 1992. De inventione dialectica libri tres/Drei Bücher über die Inventio dialectica: Auf der Grundlage der Edition von Alardus von Amsterdam (1539). Critical ed. and German trans. Lothar Mundt. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. Reprint 2013.Google Scholar
  4. Alsted, Johann Heinrich. 1630. Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta. Herborn: s.n. [G. Corvinus and J.-G. Muderspach]. Facs. repr. 1989–1990. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Fromann-Holzboog.Google Scholar
  5. Althusius, Johannes. 1586. De arte Jurisprudentiae Romanae methodice digestae libri. Basle: s.n.Google Scholar
  6. Althusius, Johannes. 1603. Politica methodice digesta et exemplis sacris et profanis illustrata. Herborn: ex off. C. Corvini.Google Scholar
  7. Arias Montano, Benito. 1569. Rhetoricorum libri quatuor. Antwerp: ex officina Christophori Plantini.Google Scholar
  8. Burgersdijk, Franco. 1626. Institutionum logicarum libri duo, decreto illustr. ac potent. dd. ordinum Hollandiae et West-Frisiae, in usum scholarum eiusdem provinciae, ex Aristotelis, Keckermanni, aliorum praecipuorum logicorum praeceptis recensitis, nova methodo ac modo formati, atque editi. Leiden: apud Abrahamum Commelinum.Google Scholar
  9. Digby, Everard. 1580. De duplici methodo libri duo, unicam P. Rami methodum refutantes. London: Henry Bynneman.Google Scholar
  10. Erasmus, Desiderius. 1519. Ratio seu compendium verae theologiae. Basle: apud Io. Frobenium.Google Scholar
  11. Euclid. 1549. In Elementa mathematica, ed. Petrus Ramus. Paris: apud Thomam Richardum.Google Scholar
  12. Foquelin, Antoine. 1555. Rhetorique françoise. Paris: de l’imprimerie d’André Wechel.Google Scholar
  13. Freige, Johann Thomas. 1571. Partitiones juris utriusque hoc est omnium juris tam civilis quam canonici materiarum in tabulas apta digestio. Basle: ex officina Sixti Henricpetri.Google Scholar
  14. Freige, Johann Thomas. 1575. Petri Rami vita. In Praelectiones in Ciceronis orationes octo consulares, 5–46, ed. P. Ramus. Basle: per Petrum Pernam. 1575.Google Scholar
  15. Freige, Johann Thomas. 1585. Quaestiones physicae. Basle: per Sebastianum Henricpetri.Google Scholar
  16. Goclenius, Rudloph. 1592. Exercitationes ethicae. Marburg: typis Pauli Egelnolphi.Google Scholar
  17. Hegendorf, Christoph. 1533. Methodus conscribendi epistolas. Paris: excudebat Christianus Wechelus.Google Scholar
  18. Hermogenes. 1531. De methodo gravitatis sive virtutis commode dicendi. Paris: Excudebat Christianus Wechelus.Google Scholar
  19. Keckermann, Bartholomäus. 1600. Systema logicae, tribus libris adornatum, pleniore praeceptorum methodo, et commentariis scriptis ad praeceptorum illustrationem. Hannover: apud Guilielmum Antonium.Google Scholar
  20. Keckermann, Bartholomäus. 1613. Systema systematum: Omnia huius autoris scripta philosophica uno volumine comprehensa lectori exhibens. Hannover: apud haeredes Guilielmi Antonii.Google Scholar
  21. Lutz, Ludwig. 1619. Aristotelis Organum, Graece et Latine; commentario analytico et paraphrastico, tabulis quinetiam synopticis perpetuis, illustratum. Basle: per Sebastianum Henricpetri.Google Scholar
  22. Melanchthon, Philipp. 1537. De dialectica libri IIII: Ab autore nunc demum recogniti, multaque accessione postrema hac aeditione locupletati. Cologne: Ioannes Gymnicus.Google Scholar
  23. Melanchthon, Philipp. 1547. Erotemata dialectices. Wittenberg: excusa per Johannem Luft.Google Scholar
  24. Núñez, Pedro Juan. 1552. Institutiones oratoriae, collecta methodicus, ex iustitutionibus prioribus Audomari Talaei. Valencia: ex Typographia Ioannis Mey.Google Scholar
  25. Núñez, Pedro Juan. 1578. Institutiones rhetoricae. Barcelona: ex officina Pedro Malo.Google Scholar
  26. Oldrini, Guido. 1997. La disputa del metodo nel Rinascimento: indagini su Ramo e sul ramismo. Florence: Le Lettere.Google Scholar
  27. Palmireno, Juan Lorenzo. 1567. Rhetorica. Valencia: ex typographia Ioannis Mey.Google Scholar
  28. Palmireno, Juan Lorenzo. 1573. De arte dicendi libri quinque. Valencia: s.n.Google Scholar
  29. Perkins, William. 1616–1618. The art of prophesying. London: John Legate and Cantrell Legge.Google Scholar
  30. Peter of Spain. 2014. Summaries of logic. ed. and trans. B.P. Copenhaver, C.G. Normore, and T. Parsons. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Piscator, Johannes. 1580. In P. Rami Dialecticam animadversiones. Frankfurt: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  32. Piscator, Johannes. 1585. Leges Scholae Herbornensis. Neustadt/Haardt: s.n. [Matthaeus Harnisch].Google Scholar
  33. Piscator, Philipp Ludwig. 1649. Rudimenta oratoriae in usum illustris scholae Albensis. Praefixae sunt tabulae methodum huius libelli indicantes. Várad: apud Abrahamum Szenci.Google Scholar
  34. Polanus Von Polansdorf, Amandus. 1609. Syntagma theologiae Christianae, juxta leges ordinis methodici conformatum. S.l. Hannover: s.n.Google Scholar
  35. Ramus, Petrus. 1543a. Aristotelicae animadversiones. Paris: excudebat Iacobus Bogardus.Google Scholar
  36. Ramus, Petrus. 1543b. Dialecticae partitiones. Paris: excudebat Iacobus Bogardus.Google Scholar
  37. Ramus, Petrus. 1543c. Dialecticae institutiones. Paris: excudebat Iacobus Bogardus.Google Scholar
  38. Ramus, Petrus. 1544. Oratio de studiis mathematicis. In Tres orationes a tribus liberalium disciplinarum professoribus, Petro Ramo, Audomaro Talaeo, Bartholomeo Alexandro Lutetiae, in gymnasio Mariano habitae, 9–16. Paris: apud Iacobum Bogardum.Google Scholar
  39. Ramus, Petrus. 1547. Brutinae quaestiones in oratorem Ciceronis. Paris: apud Andram Wechelum.Google Scholar
  40. Ramus, Petrus. 1551. Pro philosophica Parisiensis academiae disciplina oratio. Paris: ex officina Ludouici Grandini.Google Scholar
  41. Ramus, Petrus. 1553. Institutionum dialecticarum libri tres. Lyon: apud Gulielmum Rouillium.Google Scholar
  42. Ramus, Petrus. 1555a. Dialectique. Paris: chez André Wechel.Google Scholar
  43. Ramus, Petrus. 1555b. Arithmeticae libri tres. Paris: apud Andram Wechelum.Google Scholar
  44. Ramus, Petrus. 1557a. Ciceronianus. Paris: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  45. Ramus, Petrus. 1557b. Quod sit unica doctrinae instituendae methodus. Paris: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  46. Ramus, Petrus. 1567. Proemium mathematicum. Paris: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  47. Ramus, Petrus. 1569. Scholae in liberales artes. Basle: per Eusebium Episcopium et Nicolai F. haeredes.Google Scholar
  48. Ramus, Petrus. 1572. Dialecticae libri duo. Paris: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  49. Ramus, Petrus. 1964. Dialecticae Institutiones – Aristotelicae Animadversiones. Repr. with introduction by Wilhelm Risse. Stuttgart: Fromann.Google Scholar
  50. Ramus, Petrus. 1996. In Dialectique 1555, ed. N. Bruyère. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  51. Ramus, Petrus, and Wilhelm Roding. 1574. Dialecticae libri duo, ex variis ipsius disputationibus et multis Audomari Talaei commentariis denuo breviter explicati. Frankfurt: ex typographia Andreae Wecheli.Google Scholar
  52. Ramus, Petrus, and Omer Talon. 1569. Dialecticae libri duo, Audamari Talaei praelectionibus illustrati. Basle: Episcopius.Google Scholar
  53. Ramus, Petrus, and William Temple. 1584. Dialecticae libri duo, scholiis G. Tempelli Cantabrigiensis illustrati. Cambridge: ex officina Thomae Thomasij.Google Scholar
  54. Sanchez de las Brozas, Francisco. 1581. Libellus de auctoribus interpretandis, sive de exercitatione. Antwerp: ex officina Christophori Plantini.Google Scholar
  55. de Savigny, Christophe. 1587. Tableaux accomplis de tous les arts libéraux. Paris: par Iean et François de Gourmont frères.Google Scholar
  56. Scribonius, Wilhem Adolf. 1577. Rerum physicarum iuxta leges logicas methodica explicatio. Frankfurt: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  57. Scribonius, Wilhem Adolf. 1584. Idea medicinae secundum logicas leges. Lemgo: apud Conradum Grothenum.Google Scholar
  58. Scribonius, Wilhem Adolf. 1588. Ethica ex Aristotele et aliis repetita. Basle: apud Conr. Waldkirch.Google Scholar
  59. Sempere, Andrés. 1568. Methodus oratoria. Valencia: ex Typographia Ioannis Mey.Google Scholar
  60. Snell, Rudolf. 1594. Partitiones physicae, methodi Rameae legibus informatae: Exceptae olim ex dictantis ejus ore in Schola Marpurgensi. Hannover: Apud Guilielmum Antonium.Google Scholar
  61. Sonnleutner, Michael. 1584. Institutionis dialecticae sive introductionis in artem logicam libri duo: ex Ph. Melanchthonis et P. Rami dialecticis praeceptionibus. Nuremberg: s.n.Google Scholar
  62. Sturm, Johann. 1539a. In Partitiones oratorias Ciceronis dialogi quatuor. Strasbourg: Excudebat Theodosius Rihelius.Google Scholar
  63. Sturm, Johann. 1539b. Partitionum dialecticarum libri duo. Strasbourg: in aedibus Wendelini Rihelii.Google Scholar
  64. Sturm, Johann. 1543. Partitionum dialecticarum libri duo. Book III. Paris: apud Christianum Wechelum.Google Scholar
  65. Talon, Omer, and Petrus Ramus. 1544. Institutiones oratoriae. Paris: apud Iacobum Bogardum.Google Scholar
  66. Talon, Omer, and Petrus Ramus. 1546. Commentarii dialectici tres. Paris: ex officina Ludouici Grandini.Google Scholar
  67. Talon, Omer, and Petrus Ramus. 1548. Rhetorica. Paris: e typographia Matthaei Davidis.Google Scholar
  68. Talon, Omer, and Petrus Ramus. 1567. Rhetorica, Petri Rami praelectionibus illustrata. Paris: apud Andream Wechelum.Google Scholar
  69. Talon, Omer, and Petrus Ramus. 1569. Rhetorica. Lyon: apud Thibaud Payen.Google Scholar
  70. Temple, William. 1580. Admonitio de unica P. Rami methodo. London: excudebat Henricus Middletonus, impensis Thomae Man.Google Scholar
  71. Temple, William. 1605. A logical analysis of twenty select psalmes. London: Thomas Man.Google Scholar
  72. Timpler, Clemens. 1519. In pseudodialecticos. Louvain: Thierry Martens.Google Scholar
  73. Timpler, Clemens. 1531. De tradendis disciplinis. Antwerp: Michael Hillenius in Rapo.Google Scholar
  74. Timpler, Clemens. 1604. Metaphysicae systema methodicum. Steinfurt: Caesar.Google Scholar
  75. Timpler, Clemens. 1979. In In pseudodialecticos: A critical edition, ed. Charles Fantazzi. E.J. Brill: Leiden.Google Scholar

Secondary Literature

  1. Angelini, Annarita. 2008. Metodo ed enciclopedia nel cinquecento francese, I: Il pensiero di Pietro Ramo all’origine dell’enciclopedismo moderno; II: Tableaux di Savigny. Florence: Olschki.Google Scholar
  2. Boran, Elizabethanne. 2001. Ramism in trinity college, Dublin in the early seventeenth century. In The influence of Petrus Ramus: Studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and sciences, ed. Mordechai Feingold, Joseph S. Freedman, and Wolfgang Rother, 177–199. Basle: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  3. Bruyère, Nelly. 1984. Méthode et dialectique dans l’oeuvre de La Ramée: Renaissance et âge classique. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  4. Feingold, Mordechai. 2001. English Ramism: A reinterpretation. In The influence of Petrus Ramus: Studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and sciences, ed. Mordechai Feingold, Joseph S. Freedman, and Wolfgang Rother, 127–176. Basle: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  5. Goulding, Robert. 2010. Defending Hypatia: Ramus, Savile, and the Renaissance rediscovery of mathematical history. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hotson, Howard. 2007. Commonplace learning: Ramism and its German ramifications, 1543–1630. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Jardine, Lisa. 1974. Francis Bacon: Discovery and the art of discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Jiménez, Alfonso Martín. 2004. Ramus et l’Université espagnole. In Ramus et l’université, ed. Kees Meerhoff and Michel Magnien, 131–153. Paris: Éditions Rue d’Ulm.Google Scholar
  9. Kecskeméti, Gábor. 2011. The reception of Ramist rhetoric in Hungary and Transylvania: Possibilities and achievements. In Ramus, pedagogy and the liberal arts: Ramism in Britain and the wider world, ed. Steven J. Reid and Emma Annette Wilson, 205–226. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  10. Knight, Sarah. 2011. Flat dichotomists and learned men: Ramism in Elizabethan drama and satire. In Ramus, pedagogy and the liberal arts: Ramism in Britain and the wider world, ed. Steven J. Reid and Emma Annette Wilson, 47–68. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. Mack, Peter. 2004. Le ramisme à Oxford au 16ème siècle. In Ramus et l’université, ed. Kees Meerhoff and Michel Magnien, 121–130. Paris: Éditions Rue d’Ulm.Google Scholar
  12. Mack, Peter. 2011. Ramus and Ramism: Rhetoric and dialectic. In Ramus, pedagogy and the liberal arts: Ramism in Britain and the wider world, ed. Steven J. Reid and Emma Annette Wilson, 7–23. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. Maclean, Ian. 2009. Learning and the market place: Essays in the history of the early modern book. Leiden: Brill.s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meerhoff, Kees. 1986. Rhétorique et poétique au XVIe siècle en France. Du Bellay, Ramus et les autres. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  15. Meerhoff, Kees, and Jean-Claude Moisan, eds. 1997. Autour de Ramus: Texte, théorie, commentaire. Quebec: Nuit Blanche.Google Scholar
  16. Meerhoff, Kees, and Jean-Claude Moisan, eds. 2005. Autour de Ramus: Le combat. Paris: H. Champion.Google Scholar
  17. Oldrini, Guido. 2001. The influence of Ramus’ method on historiography and jurisprudence. In The influence of Petrus Ramus: Studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and sciences, ed. Mordechai Feingold, Joseph S. Freedman, and Wolfgang Rother, 215–227. Basle: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  18. Ong, Walter, J. 1958a. Ramus, method, and the decay of dialogue. From the art of discourse to the art of reason. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Ong, Walter, J. 1958b. A short-title inventory of the published works of Peter Ramus (1515–1572) and Omer Talon (ca. 1510–1562) in their original and in their variously altered forms. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Pozzo, Riccardo. 2000. Ramus’ metaphysics and its criticism by the Helmstedt Aristotelians. In The influence of Petrus Ramus: Studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and sciences, ed. Mordechai Feingold, Joseph S. Freedman, and Wolfgang Rother, 92–106. Basle: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  21. Pozzo, Riccardo. 2012. Adversus Ramistas. Kontroversen über die Natur der Logik am Ende der Renaissance. Basel: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  22. Reid, Steven J. 2011. Andrew Melville and Scottish Ramism: A re-interpretation. In Ramus, pedagogy and the liberal arts: Ramism in Britain and the wider world, ed. Steven J. Reid and Emma Annette Wilson, 25–46. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  23. Robinet, André. 1996. Aux sources de l’esprit cartésien, l’axe La Ramée-Descartes De la Dialectique de 1555 aux Regulae. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  24. Rother, Wolfgang. 2001. Ramus and Ramism in Switzerland. In The influence of Petrus Ramus: Studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and sciences, ed. Mordechai Feingold, Joseph S. Freedman, and Wolfgang Rother, 9–37. Basle: Schwabe.Google Scholar
  25. Skalnik, James Veazie. 2002. Ramus and reform: University and church at the end of the renaissance. Kirksville: Truman State University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Vasoli, Cesare. 2007. La dialettica e retorica dell’umanesimo. Naples: La Città del Sole. 1st ed. 1968, Milan: Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  27. Wilson, Emma Annette. 2011. Reading the “unseemly logomachy”: Ramist method in action in seventeenth-century English literature. In Ramus, pedagogy and the liberal arts: Ramism in Britain and the Wider World, ed. Steven J. Reid and Emma Annette Wilson, 69–88. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University and Research Library Erfurt/Gotha, Gotha Research CentreGothaGermany