Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Marco Sgarbi

Bessarion, Cardinal

Born: 2.01.1399/1400/1403/8, Trebizond
Died: 18.11.1472, Ravenna
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02848-4_25-1

Abstract

Bessarion was a Byzantine scholar, theologian, philosopher, and cardinal of the Roman Church. He was born in Trebizond on the Black Sea and was brought to Constantinople where he received a literary and philosophical education. In 1430–1431, he joined the circle of Georgios Gemistos’ (Plethon’s) students. in 1438–1439, he participated in the council of Ferrara/Florence as a speaker of Byzantine delegation. After the council, he was made cardinal of the Roman Church. In 1455, he nearly became pope. He was a legatus a latere to Germany, Republic of Venice, France, Burgundy, and England. Almost all of B.’s political activities were directed towards advancing the preparations for the crusade against the Turks. In addition to a number of theological works, Bessarion composed two major philosophical treatises, On Nature and Art and Against the Calumniator of Plato. In Against the Calumniator of Plato, he defends Plato against a number of charges which Georgios of Trebizond had formulated against Plato in his treatise Comparatio philosophorum Platonis et Aristotelis et de praestantia Aristotelis. In On Nature and Art he evinces an agreement between the Platonic and the Aristotelian philosophies and also suggests an accord between Platonic philosophy and Christian theology.

Keywords

Christian Religion Christian Doctrine Divine Providence Diplomatic Mission Aristotelian Philosophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Accendere, P.D., and I. Privitera (eds.). 2014. Bessarione: La natura delibera – La natura e l’arte. Milano, Bompiani.Google Scholar
  2. Bianca, C. 1999. Da Bisanzio a Roma. Studi sul Cardinale Bessarione. Roma, Roma nel Rinascimento.Google Scholar
  3. Candal, E. (ed.). 1958. Bessarion Nicaenus, S.R.E. Cardinalis: Oratio dogmatica de unione. Romae, Pontificium institutum orientalium studiorum.Google Scholar
  4. Coluccia G.L. 2009. Basilio Bessarione. Lo spirito greco e l’occidente. Firenze, Olschki.Google Scholar
  5. Del Soldato, E. 2008. Platone, Aristotele e il Cardinale. Il De natura et arte di Bessarione. Rinascimento, s. 2 XLVIII: 61–79.Google Scholar
  6. Del Soldato, E. (ed.). 2014. Basilio Bessarione: Contro il Calunniatore di Platone. Roma, Edizioni di storia e letteratura.Google Scholar
  7. Hankins, J. 1991. Plato in the Italian Renaissance. I-II. Leiden, Brill.Google Scholar
  8. Hunger, H. 1969. Johannes Chortasmenos (ca. 1370–ca. 1436/37). Briefe, Gedichte und kleine Schriften. Wien.Google Scholar
  9. Laurent, V. 1933. La liste épiscopale du synodicon de Monembasie’, Échos d’Orient, xxxvi, pp. 129–161.Google Scholar
  10. Labowsky, L. 1967. Bessarione. Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani IX: 686–696.Google Scholar
  11. Labowsky, L. 1979. Bessarion’s library and the Biblioteca Marciana. Six early inventories. Roma, Edizioni di storia e letteratura.Google Scholar
  12. Loenertz, R.-J. 1944. Pour une biographie du cardinal Bessarion. Orientalia Christiana Periodica 10: 116–149.Google Scholar
  13. Lusini, G. (ed.). 2001. Bessarione di Nicea: Orazione dogmatica sull’unione dei Greci e dei Latini. Napoli, Vivarium.Google Scholar
  14. Mariev, S. 2013. Der Traktat De natura et arte des Kardinals Bessarion. In “Inter graecos latinissimus, inter latinos graecissimus”: Bessarion zwischen den Kulturen, ed. C. Märtl, Ch. Kaiser, and Th. Ricklin, 367–389. Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  15. Mariev, S., M. Marchetto, and K. Luchner (eds.). 2015. Bessarion: Über Natur und Kunst. Hamburg, Felix Meiner.Google Scholar
  16. Mioni, E. 1960. Contributo del cardinale Bessarione all’interpretazione della Metafisica aristotelica. In Atti del XII Congresso internazionale di filosofia, IX. Aristotelismo padovano e filosofia aristotelica, 173–181. Firenze.Google Scholar
  17. Mohler, L. (ed.). 1923–1942. Kardinal Bessarion als Theologe, Humanist und Staatsmann, I. Darstellung; II. Bessarionis in calumniatorem Platonis libri IV; III. Aus Bessarions Gelehrtenkreis. Abhandlungen, Reden, Briefe von Bessarion, Theodoros Gazes, Michael Apostolios, Andronikos Kallistos, Georgios Trapezuntios, Niccolò Perotti, Niccolò Capranica. Paderborn.Google Scholar
  18. Monfasani, J. 1976. George of Trebizond: A biography and a study of his rhetoric and logic. Leiden, Brill.Google Scholar
  19. Monfasani, J. 1986. Platina, Capranica and Perotti: Bessarion’s Latin eulogists and his date of birth. In Bartolomeo Sacchi il Platina, ed. A. Campana, and P. Medioli Masotti, 97–136. Padova, Antenore.Google Scholar
  20. Monfasani, J. 1995. Byzantine scholars in Renaissance Italy: Cardinal Bessarion and other emigrés. Selected essays. Aldershot.Google Scholar
  21. Monfasani, J. 2004. Greeks and Latins in Renaissance Italy: Studies on humanism and philosophy in the 15th century. Aldershot.Google Scholar
  22. Monfasani, J. 2008. A Tale of Two Books: Bessarion’s In Calumniatorem Platonis and George of Trebizond’s Comparatio Philosophorum Platonis et Aristotelis. Renaissance Studies. Journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies 22(1): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Monfasani, J. 2011. Bessarion Scholasticus: A study of Cardinal Bessarion’s Latin library. Turnhout, Brepols.Google Scholar
  24. Monfasani, J. 2012. Cardinal Bessarion’s Greek and Latin sources in the Plato-Aristotle controversy of the 15th century and Nicholas of Cusa’s Relation to the controversy. In Knotenpunkt Byzanz: Wissensformen und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen, ed. A. Speer, and P. Steinkrüger, 469–480. Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  25. Monfasani, J. 2013a. George Gemistos Pletho and the West: Greek Émigrés, Latin Scholasticism, and Renaissance Humanism. In Renaissance encounters: Greek East and Latin West, ed. M.S. Brownlee, and D. Gondicas, 19–34. Leiden, Brill.Google Scholar
  26. Monfasani, J. 2013b. The pre- and post-history of Cardinal Bessarion’s 1469 In Calumniatorem Platonis. In “Inter graecos latinissimus, inter latinos graecissimus” Bessarion zwischen den Kulturen, ed. C. Märtl, Ch. Kaiser, and Th. Ricklin, 347–366. Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  27. Pagani, F. 2011. Platonis Leges Georgio Trapezuntio interprete cum Bessarionis animadversionibus. Introduzione, edizione critica e appendici, PhD Thesis unpublished.Google Scholar
  28. Palermino, R.J. 1980. The Roman Academy, the catacombs and the conspiracy of 1468. Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 18: 117–155.Google Scholar
  29. Rigo, A. 1994. Le opere d’argomento teologico del giovane Bessarione. In Bessarione e l’Umanesimo, ed. G. Fiaccadori, 33–46. Napoli, Vivarium.Google Scholar
  30. Rigo, A. 2012. La teologia di Bessarione da Costantinopoli a Roma. In Bessarione e la sua Accademia, ed. A. Gutkowski, and E. Prinzivalli, 21–55. Roma, Casa Editrice Miscellanea Francescana.Google Scholar
  31. Ronchey, S. 2002. L’ultimo bizantino. Bessarione e gli ultimi regnanti di Bisanzio. In L’eredità greca e l’ellenismo veneziano, ed. G. Benzoni, 75–92. Firenze, Olschki.Google Scholar
  32. Saffrey, H.D. 1964. Recherches sur quelques autographes du cardinal Bessarion et leur caractère autobiographique. In Mélanges Eugène Tisserant, Pt. 3, 263–297. Città del Vaticano.Google Scholar
  33. Termini, F.A. 1915. Pietro Ransano: umanista palermitano del sec. XV. Palermo, Libreria editrice A. Trimarchi.Google Scholar
  34. Vast, H. 1878. Le Cardinal Bessarion (1403–1472). Étude sur la Chrétienté et la Renaissance vers le milieu du XVe siècle. Paris, Hachette.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Byzantine Studies, Byzantine Art History and Modern Greek PhilologyLudwig-Maximilian University of MunichMunichGermany