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Advertising refers to any form of paid mass communication on behalf of an entity, intended to inform or persuade an audience regarding its product or message. The media traditionally associated with advertising were television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines, as well as various forms of outdoor advertising such as billboards. Such communication was not interactive; it most often represented one-way communication between an advertiser and an audience. This top-down monologue meant that, until quite recently, there was little scope for answering back (scant possibility of dialogue).
The most obvious example of advertising in tourism is the promotion of a destination. Indeed, the literature on tourism advertising is dominated by studies on the effectiveness of advertising destinations (Kim et al. 2005; Siegel and Ziff-Levine 1990; Woodside 1990). However, any tourism productcan be the subject of advertising, with billions of dollars spent annually advertising flights,...