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Adventure tourism encapsulates a broad range of structured and unstructured tourist products. An adventure takes place when participants use their skills and abilities to face uncertain and often novel challenges. Participants, whether novices or experienced, may require sufficient personal fitness to engage both real and perceived risks, including risk of injury, during adventures. Although tourist adventures are typically nature based, they may also happen in built environments. Its duration may vary, for example, from an hour-long white-water rafting trip to months of bicycling through remote and exotic locations. Successful negotiation of the challenge by the participant is accompanied by positive affective responses such as thrill or excitement. Meeting and overcoming them result in feelings of enjoyment and achievement (Morgan et al. 2005).
Commercial adventure tourism operations and tours have evolved typically following the discovery and promotion of suitable locations by...