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Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: Platforms and Analysis

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Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

In this chapter, the main lead exposure biomarkers reported in the scientific literature are summarized, along with their pros and cons and situations in which they should be recommended. The population is exposed daily to lead concentrations present in the environment. Pregnant women and children are the groups most affected by lead exposure and may suffer a number of health effects. Lead exposure surveillance is crucial both for environmental and occupational exposure. Knowing how to select the most suitable biomarker for each exposure scenario is essential to allow useful and effective biomonitoring. Different types of biological matrices can be used to assess biomarkers of lead exposure, including teeth, bone, nails, whole blood, plasma, urine, saliva, and hair. Blood Pb remains the biomarker of choice for recent lead exposure, while long-term exposure can be determined using the mean of serial blood Pb levels. Pb in teeth, and bone can be good biomarkers for investigating cumulative exposure. Pb in urine and saliva reflects recent exposure and has the advantage of being a noninvasive method. However, some factors which vary greatly among individuals need to be taken into account. Nails can serve as a good tool for initial screening.

Keywords

  • Lead
  • Exposure
  • Environment
  • Occupational
  • Biomonitoring
  • Teeth
  • Bone
  • Nails
  • Blood
  • Plasma
  • Urine
  • Saliva
  • Hair

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Abbreviations

ALA:

Aminolevulinic acid

ALAD:

Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

BLRV:

Blood lead reference values

CDC:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

EDTA:

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

ET AAS:

Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

GABA:

γ-Aminobutyric acid

GF AAS:

Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

HCl:

Hydrochloric acid

HNO3:

Nitric acid

H2O2:

Hydrogen peroxide

H2SO4:

Sulfuric acid

ICP-MS:

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

IAEA:

International atomic energy agency

LEPAC:

Lead Exposure and Prevention Advisory Committee

NHANES:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Na2EDTA:

Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic dihydrate

NH4OH:

Ammonium hydroxide

Pb:

Lead

SDGs:

Sustainable development goals

TMAH:

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide

UNICEF:

The United Nations Children’s Fund

XRF:

X-ray fluorescence

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (Grants #2017/25424-9, #2017/20752-8, #2018/18391-0, #2020/00919-8) and Higher Education Personnel Improvement Coordination - CAPES.

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Correspondence to Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio .

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Olympio, K.P.K., Salles, F.J., Akiba, N., Luz, M.S. (2022). Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: Platforms and Analysis. In: Patel, V.B., Preedy, V.R., Rajendram, R. (eds) Biomarkers in Toxicology. Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87225-0_31-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87225-0_31-1

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-87225-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-87225-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Biomedicine & Life SciencesReference Module Biomedical and Life Sciences