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Zinc Batteries: Basics, Materials Functions, and Applications

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The intermittent nature of the demanding renewable energy sources required cheap energy storage systems; however, the currently used advanced energy storage systems mainly rely on lithium- or sodium-based chemistries. Both metals are highly reactive and expensive, hence increasing the energy storage system’s overall cost. Therefore, an alternative system is highly in demand, which should have comparable energy storage capacity at a much lower cost and high safety. In this regard, zinc-based batteries got tremendous attention as its less reactive nature makes it safe, while low cost and high energy density make it affordable. Recently, considerable work has been done on various battery chemistries by utilizing zinc as a charge storing agent. This chapter summarizes recent progress in zinc battery technologies and its possible applications. This chapter first describes the working operation of zinc-based batteries, emphasizing zinc-ion, zinc-air, and aqueous zinc batteries. Then, it addresses the factors which control the performance of zinc-based batteries. Afterward, the various advantages of zinc batteries are discussed along with the associated challenges, and their possible solutions are also listed. In progress, this chapter highlights the recent progress in the development of electrode chemistries for zinc batteries. Further, different applications of various zinc-based batteries are presented to highlight their commercial impact. In the end, a summary is provided with future perspectives to guide for a future possible solution to the associated challenges.


  • Zinc-based batteries
  • Electrodes
  • Energy storage

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Correspondence to Nasir Mahmood .

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© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

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Gbadamasi, S., Loomba, S., Khan, M.W., Shabbir, B., Mahmood, N. (2022). Zinc Batteries: Basics, Materials Functions, and Applications. In: Shanker, U., Hussain, C.M., Rani, M. (eds) Handbook of Green and Sustainable Nanotechnology. Springer, Cham.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-69023-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-69023-6

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Chemistry & Mat. ScienceReference Module Physical and Materials Science