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Negotiation, Online Dispute Resolution, and Artificial Intelligence

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Handbook of Group Decision and Negotiation

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been fundamental to the development of both online dispute resolution and negotiation support systems (NSS). The earliest NSS were settlement-oriented and template-based or rule-based. Then followed the development of case-based systems, which were an important extension on the use of rule-based reasoning in AI. Simultaneously, game theory was used as the basis of providing intelligent negotiation support, as shown in the Adjusted Winner, Family Winner, and Smartsettle Systems. In the early years of negotiation support using AI, systems development was often ad hoc rather than systematic, with a focus more upon technology than user needs. The situation changed as intelligent NSS were proposed for use in a variety of domains such as family law and international disputes. We conclude with a discussion of the features that a truly helpful online dispute resolution system would provide, and with comments on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the need for online dispute resolution.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Plea bargaining is the process whereby the accused and the prosecutor in a criminal case workout a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case subject to court approval. It usually involves the defendant’s pleading guilty to a lesser offense or to only one or some of the counts of a multicount indictment in return for a lighter sentence.

  2. 2.

    See https://www.kentlaw.iit.edu/institutes-centers/center-for-access-to-justice-and-technology last viewed November 10, 2019

  3. 3.

    A Pareto-optimal outcome is defined by the property that any other outcome that makes one party better off makes at least one other party worse off.

  4. 4.

    https://www.legalaid.vic.gov.au/about-us last viewed July 19, 2020

  5. 5.

    Toulmin (1958) stated that all arguments, regardless of the domain, have a structure that consists of four basic invariants: claim, data, warrant, and backing. Every argument makes an assertion. The assertion of an argument stands as the claim of the argument. A mechanism is required to act as a justification for the claim, given the data. This justification is known as the warrant. The backing supports the warrant and in a legal argument is typically a reference to a statute or precedent case.

  6. 6.

    A neural network receives its name from the fact that it resembles a nervous system in the brain. It consists of many self-adjusting processing elements cooperating in a densely interconnected network. Each processing element generates a single output signal which is transmitted to the other processing elements. The output signal of a processing element depends on the inputs to the processing element: each input is gated by a weighting factor that determines the amount of influence that the input will have on the output. The strength of the weighting factors is adjusted autonomously by the processing element as data is processed.

  7. 7.

    Logrolling is a process in which participants look collectively at multiple issues to find issues that one party considers more important than does the opposing party. Logrolling is successful if the parties concede issues to which they give low importance values. See (Pruitt 1981).

  8. 8.

    https://www.amica.gov.au/ last viewed July 20, 2020.

  9. 9.

    https://www.smh.com.au/technology/judges-mandate-app-for-separated-parents-20190906-p52op7.html last viewed February 18, 2020.

  10. 10.

    See, generally, Adieu, “Complete Your Financial Disclosure in a Fraction of the Time” https://www.adieu.ai/ last viewed July 27, 2020.

  11. 11.

    https://rechtwijzer.nl/ last viewed July 20, 2020.

  12. 12.

    See, generally, Immediation, “What Is Immediation?” https://www.immediation.com/ last viewed July 27, 2020.

  13. 13.

    See, generally, MODRON, “Resolve the World’s Disputes Whenever Wherever” https://www.modron.com/ last viewed July 27, 2020. MODRON is the provider favored by the Australian Resolution Institute: Resolution Institute, “Resolution Institute and MODRON Have Partnered to Bring Our Members Spaces” (2020) https://www.resolution.institute/resources/online-dispute-resolution-platforms/modron last viewed July 27, 2020.

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Zeleznikow, J. (2021). Negotiation, Online Dispute Resolution, and Artificial Intelligence. In: Kilgour, D.M., Eden, C. (eds) Handbook of Group Decision and Negotiation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49629-6_38

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