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Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activities of Carotenoids

Living reference work entry
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Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Carotenoids are plant pigments widely spread in nature, especially in fruits and vegetables. These compounds have been subject of scientific research due to their several biological activities. Attention has been devoted to their role as antioxidants and/or pro-oxidants. If in one hand carotenoids are postulated to reduce the risk and prevent the development of several diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancer, cardiovascular, and chronic diseases. On the other hand, due to their potential pro-oxidant action, carotenoids may enhance harmful effects and oxidative damage to biomolecules, like DNA, proteins, and membranes. This chapter provides a general overview of carotenoids and their mechanisms of action, both as anti- and/or pro-oxidants, as evaluated in in vitro non-cellular and cellular models as well as in in vivo systems.

Keywords

Carotenes Xanthophylls Reactive species Antioxidant Pro-oxidant Oxidative stress 

Abbreviations

ABTS•+

2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

APPH

2,2′-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride

BCMO1

β-Carotene-15,15′-monooxygenase

BCO2

β-Carotene-9′,10′-oxigenase 2

CD36

Cluster determinant 36

DCFH-DA

2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate

DHR 123

Dihydrorhodamine 123

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH

Glutathione

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

IDL

Intermediate-density lipoprotein

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

MDA

Malondialdehyde

ORAC

Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity

ORAC-L

Oxygen radical absorbing capacity for lipophilic compounds

PCL

Photochemiluminescence

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SCARB1

Scavenger receptor class B member 1

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

VLDL

Very low-density lipoprotein

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work received financial support from PT national funds (FCT/MCTES, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior) through grant UIDB/50006/2020 (LAQV-REQUIMTE Associate Laboratory) and from the European Union (FEDER funds through COMPETE POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029253). Marisa Freitas acknowledges the financial support from the European Union (FEDER funds through COMPETE POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029248).

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LAQV, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Section editors and affiliations

  • K. G. Ramawat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity College of Science, M. L. Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia

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