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The Beneficial Role of Natural Antioxidants in Alleviating Neuroinflammatory Disorders Including Neurodegeneration

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Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

The inflammatory response is a highly self-regulated process that arises due to the common consequence of injury or infection and it has been observed that chronic inflammations cause tissue damage. The complexity of this process attracted huge scientific interest which deals with understanding inflammatory responses at their molecular level. Generally inflammatory response occurring within the brain and spinal cord is known as neuroinflammation. The severity of neuroinflammation is highly dependent on the type of disease, injury, infection, or stress while the duration and course of neuroinflammatory responses equally contribute to understand these processes and the subsequent physiological, biochemical, and behavioral changes. Neuroinflammatory responses are mediated by microglia which are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Many years of research support the fact that chronic inflammation along with increasing age increases the risk of progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation and increasing oxidative stress form the basis of neuronal apoptosis ending up with synaptic loss leading to physiological and behavioral changes in the patients. Several natural compounds have been proven to possess a strong antioxidant effect that reduces neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we present the reports on few natural antioxidants which act against neuroinflammatory disorders while focusing on their molecular mechanism of action.

Keywords

Oxidative stress Neuroinflammation Microglia Natural antioxidants Neurodegeneration 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ARE

Antioxidant response element

HD

Huntington’s disease

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MS

Multiple sclerosis

Nrf2

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2

PD

Parkinson’s disease

SVD

Small vessel disease

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the grant provided by DST-FIST (Grant No. SR/FST/LSI-639/2015(C)), UGC-SAP (Grant No.F.5-1/2018/DRS-II (SAP-II)), and RUSA 2.0 [F. 24-51/2014-U, Policy (TN Multi-Gen), Dept. of Education, Government of India].

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyAlagappa University [Science Campus]KaraikudiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Halina Ekiert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of PharmacyJagiellonian University, Medical CollegeKrakówPoland

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