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Allodapine Bees

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The Allodapini is one of four tribes in the Xylocopinae (Apidae), comprising about 300 described species largely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Australia, with one genus extending through southern Asia and another restricted to the Middle East. Most species are stem nesters with small colony sizes, but they exhibit the most sophisticated forms of social organization within the subfamily. They have been widely studied for the insights they can provide into social evolution, social parasitism, sex allocation theory, systematics, and historical biogeography. At the same time, these are by no means conspicuous insects. Their small body size, usually very small colonies, and hidden nesting habits ensure that most entomologists are probably unaware of them even in the areas where they naturally occur. It is notable, for example, that they have no generally accepted common name in English.

Nesting Biology

Allodapines are unique among bees in their brood-rearing habit....

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Allodapine Bees, Fig. 1
Allodapine Bees, Fig. 2
Allodapine Bees, Fig. 3

References

  1. Michener, C. D. (1977). Discordant evolution and the classification of allodapine bees. Systematic Zoology, 26, 32–56.

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  2. Schwarz, M. P., Richards, M. H., & Danforth, B. N. (2007). Changing paradigms in insect social evolution: Insights from halictine and allodapine bees. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 127–150.

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  3. Schwarz, M. P., Tierney, S. M., Rehan, S. M., Chenoweth, L., & Cooper, S. J. B. (2011). The evolution of eusociality in allodapine bees: Workers began by waiting. Biology Letters, 7, 277–280.

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  4. Smith, J. A., Chenoweth, L. B., Tierney, S. M., & Schwarz, M. P. (2013). Repeated origins of social parasitism in allodapine bees indicate the weak form of Emery’s rule is widespread, but no evidence for sympatric speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109, 320–331.

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  5. Tierney, S. M., Smith, J. A., Chenoweth, L., & Schwarz, M. P. (2008). Phylogenetics of allodapine bees: A review of social evolution, parasitism and biogeography. Apidologie, 39, 3–15.

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  6. Schwarz, M. P. (1988). Local resource enhancement and sex ratios in a primitively social bee. Nature, 331, 346–348.

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Correspondence to Simon M. Tierney .

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Schwarz, M.P., Tierney, S.M. (2021). Allodapine Bees. In: Starr, C.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Social Insects. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28102-1_4

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