Incorporating Just Transition Strategies in Developing Countries Nationally Determined Contributions

Living reference work entry


International climate agreements have progressively acknowledged the growing awareness of the social impacts of climate change policy. The 2015 Paris Agreement preamble acknowledges as guiding principles equity, the right to health, food security, the need for eradication of poverty, and the imperative of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities (just transition).

The objective of this research is to achieve the inclusion of just transition strategies in the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of developing and least developed countries (developed countries), due for resubmission in 2020, and to develop a pathway to facilitate that outcome. The research findings are based on a review of the relevant literature, a roundtable of high level representatives from all stakeholder groups including international institutions, governments, large and small business, trade unions, civil society and academic researchers conducted at the 2019 COP25, and studies of four Latin American countries.

The research finds that there is a perception that the argument for the adoption of just transition strategies is only relevant for developed countries, and information on how just transition can be applied to developing countries is not available. The research also finds a lack of a common understanding of the concept by developing countries is adding to the barriers to its acceptance and introduction into policy. Accordingly, the primary challenge is to present the just transition concept to developing country parties in the manner that is relevant to their circumstances, why it must be included in their NDCs, and deliberates how that could be done.

The chapter is organized as follows: Section 1, Introduction; Section 2, Just transition literature; Section 3, Policy Roundtable; Section 4, Latin American country studies; Section 5, Framework for applying just transition principles in NDCs; and Section 6, Conclusions and next steps.


Just transition National Determined Contribution; Paris Agreement Stakeholders 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bond UniversityRobinaAustralia
  2. 2.Climate StrategiesLondonUK
  3. 3.MRG CommunicationsLondonUK

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