Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects over 5% of the adult population, is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, and is the only major cause of mortality that is increasing worldwide. It is a complex and heterogeneous inflammatory disorder of the lungs, caused mainly, but not exclusively, by cigarette smoking. Fifteen to twenty percent of smokers develop COPD.
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD; (http://www.goldcopd.com) has defined COPD as follows: “COPD is a common, preventable, and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases. The chronic airflow limitation that characterizes COPD is caused by a mixture of small airways disease (e.g., obstructive bronchiolitis) and parenchymal destruction (emphysema),...
- Singh D, Agusti A, Anzueto A, Barnes PJ, Bourbeau J, Celli BR, Criner GJ, Frith P, Halpin DMG, Han M, López Varela MV, Martinez F, Montes de Oca M, Papi A, Pavord ID, Roche N, Sin DD, Stockley R, Vestbo J, Wedzicha JA, Vogelmeier C (2019) Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive lung disease: the GOLD science committee report 2019. Eur Respir J 53:1900164CrossRefGoogle Scholar