- 71 Downloads
Disinformation is a broad concept used to describe creation, content, dissemination, amplification, and impact of false (untruth) information that is intentionally created to influence public opinion, usually in connection with political processes and integrity of elections.
The fundamental changes in today’s public information environment – development of digital communication, social media, and mobile communication capabilities – have led to an increased focus on disinformation, which has become varied in form and pace.
The content of disinformation usually combines true and false elements, as well as framing of the information provided.
In media, political, and public debates, two terms – disinformation and fake news – are often used interchangeably.
Fake news(hoax news) is a narrower term, essentially a neologism, which usually refers to fabricated and...
KeywordsDisinformation Misinformation Malinformation Fake news Fact checking Media and Information literacy
- Albrecht, E. (2019, July 2). Evolution of Russia’s informational warfare in Ukraine: Interview with Olga Yurkova of Stopfake. DW Academie https://p.dw.com/p/3LSdF. Accessed 12 July 2020.
- BBC. (2018, March 20). Cambridge Analytica planted fake news. https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-43472347/cambridge-analytica-planted-fake-news. Accessed 12 July 2020.
- Brennen, J. S., Simon, F., Howard, P. N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020, April 7). Types, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/types-sources-and-claims-covid-19-misinformation. Accessed 20 July 2020.
- Cvetkovska, S., Belford, A., Silverman, C., & Feder, J. L. (2018, July 18). The secret players behind Macedonia’s fake news sites. https://www.occrp.org/en/spooksandspin/the-secret-players-behind-macedonias-fake-news-sites. Accessed 20 July 2020.
- Dimock, M. (2020, February 19). How Americans view trust, facts and democracy today. Pew. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/trust/archive/winter-2020/how-americans-view-trust-facts-and-democracy-today. Accessed 10 July 2020.
- European Commission. (2018, January 12). Experts appointed to the high-level group of fake news and online disinformation. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/experts-appointed-high-level-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation. Accessed 3 July 2020.
- European Commission. (2020, July 7). Tackling online disinformation. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/tackling-online-disinformation. Accessed 3 July 2020.
- Ferri, C. (2020, April 21). Social media’s response to COVID-19 misinformation. https://www.apc.org/en/news/social-medias-response-covid-19-misinformation. Accessed 22 July 2020.
- Flash Eurobarometer 464. (2018, February). Fake news and disinformation online. https://data.europa.eu/euodp/en/data/dataset/S2183_464_ENG. Accessed 25 July 2020.
- Fletcher, R., Cornia, A., Graves, L, & Nielsen, R. K. (2018, February). Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/measuring-reach-fake-news-and-online-disinformation-europe. Accessed 23 July 2020.
- Ha, L., Perez, A. L., & Ray, R. (2019). Mapping recent development in scholarship on fake news and misinformation, 2008 to 2017: Disciplinary contribution, topics, and impact. American Behavioral Scientist, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219869402.
- Holan, A. D. (2016, December 13). 2016 Lie of the Year: Fake news. Politifact. https://www.politifact.com/article/2016/dec/13/2016-lie-year-fake-news/. Accessed 2 July 2020.
- LaGarde, J., & Hudgins, D. (2018). Fact Vs. Fiction: Teaching critical thinking skills in the age of fake news. Portland, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.Google Scholar
- Li, J., & Su, M. (2020). Real talk about fake news: Identity language and disconnected networks of the US public’s “fake news” discourse on Twitter. Social Media + Society, 1–14.Google Scholar
- Martin-Rozumiłowicz, B., & Kužel, R. (2019, August). Social media, disinformation and electoral integrity (IFES Working paper). https://www.ifes.org/sites/default/files/ifes_working_paper_social_media_disinformation_and_electoral_integrity_august_2019_0.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2020.
- Mouffe, C. (2005). On the political. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mythdetector. (2019, June 5). Disinformation about the absence of Russian trace in the MH17 investigation. https://mythdetector.ge/en/myth/disinformation-about-absence-russian-trace-mh17-investigation. Accessed 20 July 2020.
- Nelson, J. L., & Taneja, H. (2018). The small, disloyal fake news audience: The role of audience availability in fake news consumption. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3720–3737. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818758715.
- Newman, N., & Fletcher, R. (2017). Bias, bullshit and lies: Audience perspectives on low trust in the media. Audience Perspectives on Low Trust in the Media. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/bias-bullshit-and-lies-audience-perspectives-low-trust-media. Accessed 12 July 2020.
- Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2019). Fighting misinformation on social media using crowdsourced judgments of news source quality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(7), 2521–2526. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1806781116.
- Pomerantsev, P. (2014, May 5). How Putin is reinventing warfare. Foreign Policy. http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/05/05/how-putin-is-reinventing-warfare/.
- Special Eurobarometer 503. (2020, March). Attitudes towards the impact of digitalisation of daily lives.Google Scholar
- Thorson, E. (2016). Belief echoes: The persistent effects of corrected misinformation. Political Communication, 33(3), 460–480. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2015.1102187.
- Uberti, D. (2016, December 15). The real history of fake news. Columbia Journalism Review. https://www.cjr.org/special_report/fake_news_history.php. Accessed 20 July 2020.
- UNESCO. (2018). Journalism, ‘fake news’ & disinformation. https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/journalism_fake_news_disinformation_print_friendly_0.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2020.
- Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017). Information disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making. Report to the Council of Europe.Google Scholar
- Wohn, Y., & Bowe, B. (2016, January–March). Micro agenda setters: The effect of social media on young adults’ exposure to and attitude toward news. Social Media + Society, 1–12.Google Scholar
- Pomerantsev, P. (2019). This is not propaganda: Adventures in the war against reality. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
- Shu, K., Wang, S., & Lee, D. (2020). Disinformation, misinformation, and fake news in social media: Emerging research challenges and opportunities (Lecture notes in social networks, 1st ed.). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
- Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017) Information disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making. Report to the Council of Europe.Google Scholar