The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Oliver Richmond (Editor-in-Chief), Gëzim Visoka (Editor-in-Chief)

In Search of Justice, Peace, and Reconciliation in Northern Uganda

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11795-5_98-1
  • 122 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

More than a decade after the collapse of the Juba peace talks in South Sudan between the Lord’s Resistance Army/Movement (LRA/M) and the government of Uganda (GoU) to end the northern Uganda conflict (see “Conflict”), the journey toward achieving justice for the victims and survivors and reconciliation (see “Reconciliation”) and building durable and sustainable peace in the region has been fraught with disagreements and challenges. Although justice is often seen as a prerequisite for reconciliation and lasting peace (see “Peace”), there is no agreement among the users of the concept on what it means to call a situation just or unjust. In the case of northern Uganda, for those who support the International Criminal Court (ICC), justice entails retribution and punishing those who committed the most serious crimes against civilians, what has been called retributive justice. However, in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Akhavan, P. (2005). The Lord’s Resistance Army case: Uganda’s submission of the first state referral to the International Criminal Court. The American Journal of International Law, 99(2), 403–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, T. (2006). Trial justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lord’s Resistance Army. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  3. Apuuli, K. P. (2006). The ICC arrest warrants for the Lord’s Resistance Army leaders and peace prospects for northern Uganda. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4(1), 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R. R. (2010). ‘The realists in Juba’? An analysis of the Juba peace talks. In T. Allen & K. Vlassenroot (Eds.), The Lord’s Resistance Army: Myth or reality. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bainomugisha, A., & Tumushabe, G. (2005). The ‘torturous peace process’ in northern Uganda: An analysis of peace initiatives and prospects for a settlement (MACOMBA policy and academic research series no. 1). Kampala: Makerere University.Google Scholar
  6. Behrend, H. (1991). Is Alice Lakwena a witch? The Holy Spirit Movement and its fight against evil in the north. In H. B. Hansen & M. Twaddle (Eds.), Changing Uganda: The dilemmas of structural adjustment and revolutionary change. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
  7. Bloomfield, D. (2003). Reconciliation: An introduction. In D. Bloomfield, T. Barnes, & T. Huyse (Eds.), Reconciliation after violent conflict: A handbook. Stockholm: International IDEA.Google Scholar
  8. Bogner, A., & Rosenthal, G. (2017). Rebels in northern Uganda after their return to civilian life: Between a strong we-image and experiences of isolation and discrimination. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, 51(2), 175–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cline, L. E. (2013). The Lord’s Resistance Army. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  10. Daily Monitor. (2006). Kony rejects amnesty offer. Daily Monitor, July 7.Google Scholar
  11. De Waal, V. (1990). The politics of reconciliation: Zimbabwe’s first decade. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  12. Denov, M., & Lakor, A. A. (2017). When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda. Child Abuse and Neglect, 65, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dolan, C. (2010). Peace and conflict in northern Uganda 2002–06. In E. Drew (Ed.), Initiatives to end the violence in northern Uganda: 2002–09 and the Juba Peace Process (11 supplement). London: Conciliation.Google Scholar
  14. Finnström, S. (2006). Wars of the past and war in the present: The Lords Resistance Movement/Army in Uganda. Africa, 76(2), 200–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galtung, J. (1985). Twenty-five years of peace research: Ten challenges and some responses. Journal of Peace Research, 22(2), 141–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hovil, L. (2011). A poisoned chalice? Local civil society and the International Criminal Court’s engagement in Uganda. International Refugee Rights Initiative, discussion paper no. 1, October.Google Scholar
  17. Human Rights Watch. (2003). Abducted and abused: Renewed conflict in northern Uganda. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/uganda0703/uganda0703.pdf. Accessed 06 Feb 2020.
  18. ICTJ. (2005). Forgotten voices a population-based survey on attitudes about peace and justice in northern Uganda. International Center for Transitional Justice and the Human Rights Center, University of Berkeley. https://ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-HRC-Uganda-Voices-2005-English.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb 2020.
  19. ICTJ. (2007). When the war ends: A population-based survey on attitudes about peace, justice and social reconstruction in northern Uganda. International Center for Transitional Justice and the Human Rights Center, University of Berkeley. https://hhi.harvard.edu/publications/when-war-ends-population-based-survey-attitudes-about-peace-justice-and-social. Accessed 13 Feb 2020.
  20. IRIN. (2005a). The ICC and the northern Uganda Conflict. 9 June. https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/report/54857/uganda-icc-and-northern-uganda-conflict. Accessed 05 Feb 2020.
  21. IRIN. (2005b). Uganda: Traditional ritual heals communities torn apart by war. 9 June. https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/report/54857/uganda-icc-and-northern-uganda-conflict. Accessed 15 Mar 2020.
  22. JRP, & IJR. (2011). Traditional justice and war crimes in northern Uganda. JRP-IJR policy brief no. 1, August. http://www.justiceandreconciliation.org/publications/statements-briefs/2011/traditional-justice-and-war-crimes-in-northern-uganda-policy-brief-no-1/. Accessed 01 Mar 2020.
  23. Kiconco, A., & Nthakomwa, M. (2018). Marriage for the ‘new woman’ from the Lord’s Resistance Army: Experiences of female ex-abductees in Acholi region of Uganda. Women’s Studies International Forum, 68, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kopytoff, I. (1971). Ancestors as elders in Africa. Journal of the African Institute, 41(2), 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace: Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: USIP.Google Scholar
  26. Lederach, J. P. (2001). Civil society and reconciliation. In C. A. Crocker, F. O. Hampson, & P. Aall (Eds.), Turbulent peace: The challenges of managing international conflict. Washington, DC: USIP.Google Scholar
  27. Lederach, J. P. (2003). The little book of conflict transformation. Intercourse: Good Books.Google Scholar
  28. Liu Institute for Global Issues and Gulu District NGO Forum. (2005). Roco Wati Acoli: Restoring relations in Acholi-land traditional approaches to reintegration and justice. https://sppga.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2016/03/15Sept2005_Roco_Wat_I_Acoli.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2020.
  29. Lui Institute for Global Issues. (2006). Accountability, reconciliation and the Juba peace talks: Beyond the impasse. https://sppga.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2016/03/18Oct2006_AccountabilityAndReconciliation_JRP.pdf. Accessed 17 Feb 2020.
  30. MacDonald, A., & Kerali, R. (2020). Being normal: Stigmatization of Lord’s Resistance Army returnees as “moral experience” in post-war northern Uganda. Journal of Refugee Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fez117.
  31. Matsiko, G., Nyakairu, F., & Murondo, E. (2006). Kony fighters enter Juba as Amama rushes to Hague. Daily Monitor, 12 July.Google Scholar
  32. Mazrui, A. A. (1995). Towards containing conflict in Africa: Methods, mechanisms and values. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, 2(1), 81–90.Google Scholar
  33. Mbiti, J. S. (1969). African religions and philosophy. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  34. Mukasa, N. (2017). War-child mothers in northern Uganda: The civil war forgotten legacy. Development in Practice, 27(3), 354–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ndossi, E. (2011). Stigma as encountered by female returnees and the role of the church in northern Uganda. In M. Bard (Ed.), Culture, religion, and the reintegration of female child soldiers in northern Uganda. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  36. New Vision. (2005). Acholi pardons rebels. New Vision, 14 June. https://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1123166/acholi-pardon-rebels. Accessed 01 Apr 2020.
  37. New Vision. (2008). Kony fails to show up for peace signing. New Vision, 30 November. https://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1175982/kony-fails-peace-signing. Accessed 10 Feb 2020.
  38. Nnyago, K. O. (2006). If Kony is defeated, why then do we need talks? Daily Monitor, 7 July.Google Scholar
  39. Ntale, S. (2010). ICC to investigate Ugandan army. CNN. 3 June. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/africa/06/03/uganda.army.icc/index.html. Accessed 28 Mar 2020.
  40. Nyanzi, P. (2006). Museveni wants Kony amnesty debated. Daily Monitor, 8 July.Google Scholar
  41. Nzwili, F. (2017). Retired Ugandan bishop seeks restorative justice for former child soldiers. Religious News Service, 4 January. https://religionnews.com/2017/01/04/retired-ugandan-bishop-seeks-restorative-justice-for-former-child-soldiers/. Accessed 17 Apr 2020.
  42. Odongo, A. (2006). Bishop tells ICC to keep off talks. 10 July.Google Scholar
  43. Okiror, S. (2018). Abducted at nine to be a girl soldier for Kony: “Now people call me a killer”. The Guardian, 8 January. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/jan/08/abducted-girl-soldier-joseph-kony-lra-lords-resistance-army-uganda. Accessed 03 Apr 2020.
  44. Parlevliet, M. (2002). Bridging the divide: Exploring the relationship between human rights and conflict management. Track Two, 11(1), 8–43.Google Scholar
  45. Paxi Christi. (2006). Pax Christi: Breakthrough in peace talks in northern Uganda. 26 August. https://reliefweb.int/report/uganda/pax-christi-breakthrough-peace-talks-northern-uganda. Accessed 18 Feb 2020.
  46. Schneider, A., Conrad, D., Pfeiffer, A., Elbert, T., Kolassa, I. T., & Wilker, S. (2018). Stigmatization is associated with increased PTSD risk after traumatic stress and diminished likelihood of spontaneous remission-A study with East-African conflict survivors. Front Psychiatry, 9, 1–10.Google Scholar
  47. Simonse, S., Verkoren, W., & Junne, G. (2010). NGO involvement in the Juba peace talks: The role and dilemmas of IKV Pax Christi. In T. Allen & K. Vlassenroot (Eds.), The Lord’s Resistance Army: Myth or reality. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Sriram, C. L. (2004). Confronting past human rights violations: Justice vs peace in times of transition. London: Frank Cass.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ssemujju, I. N. (2006). Inside Kony talks. The Weekly Observer, 10–11 July.Google Scholar
  50. Tom, P. (2006). The Acholi traditional approach to justice and the war in northern Uganda. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project, University of Colorado. https://www.beyondintractability.org/casestudy/tom-acholi. Accessed 22 Jan 2020.
  51. Tom, P. (2017). Liberal peace and post-conflict peacebuilding in Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Uganda, Ministry of Internal Affairs. (2019). National transitional justice policy. Kampala: Ministry of Internal Affairs. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zbqYZgRVpUpDrQUTM5c_GeMsuItrB9O2/view. Accessed 13 Feb 2020.Google Scholar
  53. UN. (2003). Head of UN Humanitarian Affairs Office visits northern Uganda, says ‘deeply shocked’ by ‘war against children.’ AFR/750-IHA/820, November 10. https://www.un.org/press/en/2003/afr750.doc.htm. Accessed 22 Jan 2020.
  54. UN. (2004a). Security Council condemns rebel group’s atrocities against children in Uganda. April 14. https://news.un.org/en/story/2004/04/100232-security-council-condemns-rebel-groups-atrocities-against-children-uganda. Accessed 22 Jan 2020.
  55. UN. (2004b). Press statement on northern Uganda by Security Council President. SC8057-AFR/900. April 14. https://www.un.org/press/en/2004/sc8057.doc.htm. Accessed 22 Jan 2020.
  56. van Willigen, N., & Kroezen, J. (2013). End of war. In Y. Hwang & L. Cerna (Eds.), Global challenges: Peace and war. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV.Google Scholar
  57. Weinstein, H. M. (2011). Editorial note: The myth of closure, the Illusion of reconciliation: Final thoughts on five years as co-editor-in-chief. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 5(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent ResearcherSt AndrewsUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jasmin Ramovic
  • Liridona Veliu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Law and GovernmentDublin City UniversityDublinIreland