Encyclopedia of Heart Diseases

2011 Edition
| Editors: M. Gabriel Khan

Artificial Heart

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-219-3_19


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Ireland, and Europe. It accounts for more than 40% of total deaths in these countries. In the United States and Europe, between 6 and 15 million individuals have  heart failure (HF) (Fang et al. 2008; Dickstein et al. 2008). In the United States, HF causes more than 900,000 deaths annually (Haldeman et al. 1999), and more than half a million patients are diagnosed with a first episode of HF each year with ∼1 million hospitalizations for HF annually in the United States (Fang et al. 2008).

The aggregate 5-year survival rate of patients with HF is approximately 50%, but the 1-year mortality rate is close to 50% for patients with severe HF (New York Heart Association class IV heart failure). Patients who remain in class IV HF for several months, despite optimal medical therapy, may require heart transplantation.
  • There is no doubt that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and...

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Suggested Reading

  1. Eisen HJ, Hankins SR (2009) Continuous flow rotary left ventricular assist device: mechanical circulatory support 2.0. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:322–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Francis GS, Greenberg BH, Hsu DT et al (27 July 2010) JrACCF/AHA/ACP/HFSA/ISHLT 2010 clinical competence statement on management of patients with advanced heart failure and cardiac transplant: a report of the ACCF/AHA/ACP task force on clinical competence and training. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:424–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lund LH, Matthews J, Aaronson K (19 Feb 2010) Patient selection for left ventricular assist devices. Eur J Heart Fail (Epub)Google Scholar
  4. Mancini D, Lietz K (13 July 2010) Selection of cardiac transplantation candidates in 2010. Circulation 122(2):173–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. McCarthy PM (30 June 2009) Partial mechanical cardiac support part of the solution or part of the problem? J Am Coll Cardiol 54(1):87–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Meyns B, Klotz S, Simon A et al (2009) Proof of concept: hemodynamic response to long-term partial ventricular support with the Synergy Pocket Micro-Pump. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Tang WHW, Francis GS (16 Feb 2010) The year in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:688–696PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case Studies

  1. Pagani FD, Miller LW, Russell SD et al (2009) Extended mechanical circulatory support with a continuous-flow rotary left ventricular assist device. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:312–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ et al (2001b) Long-term use of a left ventricular assist device for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med 345:1435–1443PubMedGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2011