Encyclopedia of Heart Diseases

2011 Edition
| Editors: M. Gabriel Khan

Antioxidants

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-219-3_14

Overview

Steinberg et al. ( 1989) were among the first to indicate that modified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) could be responsible for the accumulation of lipid within macrophages, a crucial step in the early formation of atheromatous plaques (  Cholesterol).
  • Basic research suggested that vitamin E, vitamin C, and other antioxidants reduce cardiovascular disease by trapping organic free radicals or deactivating excited oxygen molecules, or both, to prevent tissue damage (Packer 1991).

  • Antioxidants may slow atherosclerotic plaque formation by inhibiting LDL-C oxidation (Steinberg and Lewis 1997) modifying platelet activity (Steiner 1999; Mabile et al. 1999) and ameliorating endothelial dysfunction.

Only some antioxidants prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic process and its progression to blockage of arteries (  Atherosclerosis/Atherothrombosis and  Angina). The harmful effect of LDL cholesterol is...
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Bibliography

References

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Suggested Reading

  1. Corti R, Flammer AJ, Hollenberg NK et al (2009) Cocoa and cardiovascular health. Circulation 119(10):1433–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  3. Opie LH, Lecour S (2007) The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signalling molecules. Eur Heart J 28(14):1683–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Soukoulis V, Dihu JB, Sole M et al (2009) Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 54(18):1660–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Streppel MT, Ocke MC, Boshuizen HC et al (2009) Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 63(7):534–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Violi F, Pignatelli P, Basili S (2010) Nutrition, supplements, and vitamins in platelet function and bleeding. Circulation 121(8):1033–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case Studies

  1. Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C et al (2008) Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:2141–2149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Kok FJ et al (2006) Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the zutphen elderly study. Arch Intern Med 166:411–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S et al for the The HOPE and HOPE-TOO Trial Investigators (2005) Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 293(11):1338–1347. HOPE-TOOGoogle Scholar
  4. Monroe KR, Murphy SP, Kolonel LN et al (2007) Prospective study of grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the multiethnic cohort study. Br J Cancer 97:440–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sorond FA, Lipsitz LA, Hollenberg NK et al (2008) Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 4:433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. The Alpha Tocopherol Beta-carotene Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330:1029–1035. ATBCGoogle Scholar

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