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Reoviruses: Rotaviruses

Viral Infections of Humans

Abstract

Rotaviruses still remain a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years, causing around 200,000 deaths annually, particularly in resource-poor settings. As based on the nucleotide sequence of VP7 and VP4 genes there are 36 G types and 51P types known to infect humans and animals. The rates of rotavirus-related morbidity are similar in both developed and developing countries, whereas >90% of rotavirus-related deaths occur in the latter regions. Longitudinal studies have shown that multiple rotavirus infections occur throughout life, and that 100% protection is yielded after two natural rotavirus infections. Rotaviruses infect primarily the enterocytes on the absorptive intestinal villi of the small intestine, and four mechanisms appear to be involved in the rotavirus diarrhea induction, including malabsorption, villus ischemia, NSP4-induced secretory diarrhea, and activation of the enteric nervous system. Rotaviruses may spread beyond the gastrointestinal tract, eventually leading to viremia and the appearance of unusual extraintestinal manifestations. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery remain poorly understood, even though the levels of serum rotavirus-specific IgA appear to be the best marker of protection against rotavirus disease. The mainstay of treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis relies on the use of oral rehydration and early introduction of feeding. Currently, there are four rotavirus vaccines available for global use, and to date, almost 100 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines, and substantial declines in hospitalizations and deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis and all-cause diarrhea have been observed across high-, middle-, and low-income countries.

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Linhares, A.C., Justino, M.C.A. (2022). Reoviruses: Rotaviruses. In: Kaslow, R.A., Stanberry, L.R., LeDuc, J.W. (eds) Viral Infections of Humans. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9544-8_59-1

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    Reoviruses: Rotaviruses
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    14 May 2023

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9544-8_59-2

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    Reoviruses: Rotaviruses
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    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9544-8_59-1