Geothermal Resources: Environmental Aspects

  • Trevor M. HuntEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)



A geological formation which will not transmit water and is a barrier to vertical movement of geothermal fluid.


A geological formation (or formations) which contains water or geothermal fluid and will allow fluid movement.


Flow of water down a path of high-permeability such as a fracture or a drillhole.

Enhanced geothermal system (EGS)

Also called “hot-dry rock”. A form of geothermal development in which heat is extracted from rocks that are hot but have low permeability and often low porosity. The rock is artificially fractured by pumping water into it to form a subsurface heat exchanger.


The point on the Earth’s surface directly above the hypocenter or focus of an earthquake.


Water, generally cold and of meteoric origin, which resides in near-surface aquifers and is often used for domestic and industrial purposes.

High-temperature system

A geothermal system, or part thereof, containing fluid having a temperature greater than...


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Books and Reviews

  1. Dickson MH, Fanelli M (2003) Geothermal energy utilization and technology. UNESCO Publishing, Paris. ISBN 92-3-103915-6Google Scholar
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  4. Hunt TM (2001) Five lectures on environmental effects of geothermal utilization. Report 2000–1, United Nations University, Reykjavik, 109 pp. ISBN 9979-68-070-9Google Scholar
  5. Hunt TM (ed) (2005) Special issue on environmental aspects of geothermal energy. Geothermics 34(2). ISSN 0375-6505Google Scholar
  6. Rybach L, Muffler LJP (1981) Geothermal systems: principles and case histories. Wiley, New York, 359 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GNS ScienceWairakei Geothermal Research CentreTaupoNew Zealand

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