Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide

  • John W. Lund
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)


Agribusiness applications

In the geothermal context, they are the heating of greenhouses and open ground for various crops, aquaculture pond and raceway heating for various aquatic species, and the heating of animal pens and houses in an effort to increase production and shorten the growing cycle.


The science of healing qualities of baths, especially with natural mineral waters and the therapeutic use of natural warm or mineral winters.

District heating

Heating of more than one building from a central heating plant with the heated fluid provided through a central distribution system of pipes.

Heat exchanger

A device for transferring heat from one fluid to another. The fluids are usually separated by conducting walls of metal or plastic.

Heat pump

A device which, by the consumption of work or heat, effects the transport of heat between a lower-temperature and a higher-temperature source. The useful output is heat in conventional usage. The reverse process is called a...


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Muffler LPJ (ed) (1979) Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States – 1978. USGS Circular 790, Arlington, 163 pGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gudmundsson JS, Lund JW (1985) Direct uses of earth heat. Int J Energy Res 9:345–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Geo-Heat Center (1997) Geothermal direct-use equipment. Q Bull 19(1):38, Klamath Falls.
  4. 4.
    Lund JW, Freeston DH, Boyd TL (2011) Direct utilization of geothermal energy 2010 worldwide review. Geothermics 40:159–180. Elsevier, Amsterdam (revision of the data collected for WGC2010 in Bali, Indonesia)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Lund JW, Bloomquist RG, Boyd TL, Renner J (2005) The United States of America country update – 2005. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, vol 29, Davis (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ragnarsson A (2010) Geothermal development in Iceland 2005–2009. In: Proceedings, world geothermal congress 2010, Bali, paper no. 0124Google Scholar
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    Gudmundsson JS, Freeston DH, Lienau PJ (1985) The Lindal diagram. Geothermal Res Council Trans 9(1):15–19, DavisGoogle Scholar
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    Lund JW (1996) Balneological use of thermal and mineral waters in the USA. Geothermics 25(1):103–148, Elsevier, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Taguchi S, Itoi R, Ysa Y (1996) Beppu hot springs. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 17(2):1–6Google Scholar
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    Lund JW (1990) Geothermal spas in Czechoslovakia. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 12(2):20–24Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyd TL (1999) The Oregon institute of technology geothermal heating system – then and now. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 20(1):10–13MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lund JW, Boyd T (2009) Oregon institute of technology geothermal uses and projects, past, present and future. In: Proceedings, thirty-fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering, Stanford University, Stanford (CD ROM)Google Scholar
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    Bloomquist RG, Nimmons JT, Rafferty K (1987) District heating development guide, vol 1. Washington State Energy Office, OlympiaGoogle Scholar
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    Rafferty K (1992) A century of service: the boise warm springs water district system. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 14(2):1–5Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frimannsson H (1991) Hitaveita Reykjavikur after 60 years of operation – development and benefits. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 13(4):1–7Google Scholar
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    Lund JW (2005) Hitaveita Reykjavikur and the Nesjavellir geothermal co-generation power plant. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 26(2):19–24Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boissier F, Desplan A, Laplaige P (2010) France country update. In: Proceeding of the world geothermal congress 2010, Bali, paper no. 161Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lund JW, Klein R (1995) Prawn park – Taupo, New Zealand. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 16(4):27–29Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lund JW (1995) Onion dehydration. Geothermal Res Council Trans 19:69–74, DavisGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chiasson A (2007) Geothermal energy utilization in ethanol production. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 28(1):2–5Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trexler DT, Flynn T, Hendrix JW (1990) Heap leaching. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 12(4):1–4Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lund JW, Rangel MA (1995) Pilot fruit drier for the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico. In: Proceedings of the world geothermal congress, Florence, Italy 1995, pp 2335–2338Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lund JW, Lienau PJ (1994) Onion dehydration. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 15(4):15–18Google Scholar
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    Rafferty K (2003) Industrial process and the potential for geothermal applications. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 24(3):7–12Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rafferty K (2004) Direct-use temperature requirements: a few rules of thumb. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 25(2):1–3Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (eds) (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, p 470Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rafferty K, Keiffer S (2002) Thermal expansion in enclosed lineshaft pump columns. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 23(2):11–15Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ragnarsson A, Hrolfsson I (1998) Akranes and Borgarfjordur district heating system. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 19(4):10–13Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ryan GP (1981) Equipment used in direct heat projects. Geothermal Res Council Trans 5:483–485, DavisGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Culver GG, Reistad GM (1978) Evaluation and design of downhole heat exchangers for direct applications. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath FallsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geo-Heat Center (1999) Downhole heat exchangers. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 20(3):28.
  32. 32.
    Dunstall MG, Freeston DM (1990) U-tube downhole heat exchanger performance in a 4-in. well, Rotorua. In: Proceedings of the 12th New Zealand geothermal workshop, Auckland, pp 229–232Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curtis R, Lund J, Sanner B, Rybach L, Hellström G (2005) Ground source heat pumps – geothermal energy for anyone, anywhere: current worldwide activity. In: Proceedings of the world geothermal congress, 2005 (CD-ROM), International Geothermal Association, AntalyaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rafferty K (2008) An Information survival kit for the prospective geothermal heat pump owner. HeatSpring Energy, Cambridge, MA, p 32Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lund JW, Sanner B, Rybach L, Curtis R, Hellström G (2003) Ground-source heat pumps – a world overview, renewable energy world. James & James, London, pp 218–227Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kavanaugh S, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. ASHRAE, Atlanta, p 167Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rafferty K (1983) Absorption refrigeration: cooling with hot water. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 8(1):17–20Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Geo-Heat Center (2005) Combined heat and power plant. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 26(3):36.
  39. 39.
    Lund JW (complied by) (2005) Combined heat and power plant, Neustadt-Glewe, Germany. Geo-Heat Cent Q Bull 26(2):31–34Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lund, J. W., and Boyd, T. L., 2015. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, April 20–25, 2015, 31 p.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ragnarsson A (2015) Geothermal development in Iceland 2010–2014, Proceeding, World Geothermal Congress, 2015, International Geothermal Association, p 14 Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Cataldi R, Hodgson SF, Lund JW (eds) (1999) Stories from a heated earth – our geothermal heritage. International Geothermal Association and the Geothermal Resources Council, Davis, p 569Google Scholar
  2. Kavanaugh SP, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source heat pumps – design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, p 167Google Scholar
  3. Lund JW (1996) Lectures on direct utilization of geothermal energy, United Nations University, Geothermal training program, report 1. Orkustofnun, Reykjavik, 123 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (eds) (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, p 454Google Scholar


  1. European Geothermal Energy Council, Belgium,
  2. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology,
  3. Geothermal Education Office, USA,
  4. IEA (International Energy Agency) Heat Pump Center, The Netherlands,
  5. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, USA,

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emeritus Director, Geo-Heat CenterOregon Institute of TechnologyKlamath FallsUSA

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