Social Algorithms

  • Xin-She YangEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science Series book series (ECSSS)



An algorithm is a step-by-step, computational procedure or a set of rules to be followed by a computer in calculations or computing an answer to a problem.

Ant colony optimization

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is an algorithm for solving optimization problems such as routing problems using multiple agents. ACO mimics the local interactions of social ant colonies and the use of chemical messenger – pheromone to mark paths. No centralized control is used and the system evolves according to simple local interaction rules.

Bat algorithm

Bat algorithm (BA) is an algorithm for optimization, which uses frequency-tuning to mimic the basic behavior of echolocation of microbats. BA also uses the variations of loudness and pulse emission rates and a solution vector to a problem corresponds to a position vector of a bat in the search space. Evolution of solutions follow two algorithmic equations for positions and frequencies.

Bees-inspired algorithms

Bees-inspired algorithms are...


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Science and TechnologyMiddlesex UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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