Reversible Computing

  • Kenichi MoritaEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science Series book series (ECSSS)


Billiard ball model

The billiard ball model (BBM) is a physical model of computation proposed by Fredkin and Toffoli (1982). It consists of idealized balls and reflectors. Balls can collide with other balls or reflectors. It is a reversible dynamical system, since it is assumed that collisions are elastic, and there is no friction. Fredkin and Toffoli showed that a reversible logic gate called Fredkin gate, which is known to be logically universal, can be embedded in BBM. Hence, a universal computer can be realized in the space of BBM.

Reversible cellular automaton

A cellular automaton (CA) consists of a large number of finite automata called cells interconnected uniformly, and each cell changes its state depending on its neighboring cells. A reversible cellular automaton (RCA) is one whose global function (i.e., a transition function from the configurations to the configurations) is injective. RCAs can be thought as spatiotemporal models of reversible physical systems as well...


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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