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Nuclear Energy pp 137-147 | Cite as

Isotope Separation Methods for Nuclear Fuel

  • Shuichi Hasegawa
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)

Glossary

Isotope

Nuclei of a chemical element which have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Some isotopes are stable; some are radioactive.

Mean free path

An average distance of a moving gas molecule between its collisions.

Molecular flow

Low-pressure phenomenon when the mean free path of a gas molecule is about the same as the channel diameter; then a molecule migrates along the channel without interference from other molecules present.

Separation capability

A measure of separative work by a cascade per unit time.

Separation factor

A ratio of a mole fraction of an isotope of interest to that of non-interest in an enriched flow divided by that in a depleted flow from a separation unit. The factor should be larger than unity for the unit to result in isotopic enrichment.

Definition of the Subject

Isotope separation, in general, means enrichment of a chemical element to one of its isotopes (e.g., 10B in B; 6Li in Li, 157Gd, etc). In the case of uranium, isotope...

Bibliography

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    World Nuclear Association. Uranium enrichment, World enrichment capacity – operational and planned. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf28.html
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    Villani S (1976) Isotope separation. American Nuclear Society, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
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    Benedict M, Pigford TH (1957) Nuclear chemical engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York; Benedict M, Pigford TH, Levi HW (1981) Nuclear chemical engineering, 2nd edn (trans: Kiyose R into Japanese)Google Scholar
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    Kemp RS (2009) Gas centrifuge theory and development: a review of U.S. programs. Sci Global Security 17:1; Wood HG, Glaser A, Kemp RS (2008) The gas centrifuge and nuclear weapons proliferation. Physics Today 40Google Scholar
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    Silex Systems Limited home page. http://www.silex.com.au/
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    World Nuclear News (2010) Initial Success from SILEX test loop, 12 April 2010. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Initial_success_from_SILEX_test_loop-1204104.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Systems Innovation, School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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