Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Oil Spill Remote Sensing

  • Mervin Fingas
  • Carl Brown
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_732-3

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

Remote sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The technical aspects of sensors are reviewed and the benefits and limitations of each sensor are given. Oil spill response often requires that remote sensing is used to detect and map the spill of interest. A wide variety of technologies had been tried.

A common and economical sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class has limited utility but has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches and among weeds or debris and, under certain lighting conditions, the inability of oil to be detected. Furthermore, water-in-oil emulsions are often not detected in the infrared. The laser fluorosensor is a most useful instrument because of its unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice, and snow. It is the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds.

Radar...

Keywords

Synthetic Aperture Radar Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Microwave Radiometer False Target Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    NAS (2003) Oil in the sea. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robbe N, Hengstermann T (2006) Remote sensing of marine oil spills from airborne platforms using multi-sensor systems. In: Brebbia CA, Antunes do Carmo JS (eds) Water pollution VIII: modelling, monitoring and management. WIT Press, Southampton, p 347Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Serra-Sogas N, O’Hara PD, Canessa R, Keller P, Pelot R (2008) Visualization of spatial patterns and temporal trends for aerial surveillance of illegal oil discharges in western Canadian marine waters. Mar Pollut Bull 56:815Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fingas M, Brown CE (2011) Oil spill remote sensing: a review. In: Fingas M (ed) Oil spill science and technology. Gulf, New York, pp 111–169 (Chap 6)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fingas M, Brown CE (2005) Review of oil spill remote sensing. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, AltarumGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hengstermann T, Robbe N (2008) Airborne oil spill remote sensing. Hydro Int 12:10–13Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jha MN, Levy J, Gao Y (2008) Advances in remote sensing for oil spill disaster management: state-of-the-art sensors technology for oil spill surveillance. Sensors 8:236Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fingas MF, Brown CE, Gamble L (1999) The visibility and detectability of oil slicks and oil discharges on water. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:865Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2009) The latest developments in remote sensing technology for oil spill detection. In: Proceedings of the Interspill 2009, MarseilleGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krol T, Stelmaszewski A, Freda W (2006) Variability in the optical properties of a crude oil-seawater emulsion. Oceanologia 48:203Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Evdokimov IN, Losev AP (2007) Potential of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy for characterizing crude petroleum oils. Oil Gas Bus, pp. 1–10Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Otremba Z, Piskozub J, Król T (2003) Modelling the reflectance of sea areas polluted with oil emulsion. Fresenius Environ Bull 12(9):1109–1113Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Otremba Z, Piskozub J (2001) Modelling of the optical contrast of an oil film on a sea surface. Opt Express 9(8):411–416Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Otremba Z, Piskozub J (2000) The modification of light flux leaving a wind-roughened, oil covered sea surface example of computations for shallow seas. Oceanol Stud 29(1):117–133Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong SI, Shin I (2010) Nighttime detection of oil spills on the sea surface using spaceborne infrared images. Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ma L, Li Y, Liu Y (2009) Oil spill monitoring based on its spectral characteristics. Environ Forensic 10:317Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Neil RA, Neville R, Thompson V (1983) The arctic marine oilspill program (AMOP) remote sensing study. Environment Canada report EPS 4-EC-83-3, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown HM, Bittner JP, Goodman RH (1996) The limits of visibility of spilled oil sheens. In: Proceedings of the second thematic international airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition, ERIM conferences. San Francisco, vol III, p 327Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taylor S (1992) 0.45 to 1.1 μm spectra of Prudhoe crude oil and of beach materials in Prince William Sound, Alaska. CRREL special report no. 92-5. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, HanoverGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang M, Yu Y, Zhang SJ, Qi X (2008) Analysis of water spectral features of petroleum pollution and estimate models from remote sensing data. SPIE 7123:712312Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahmed S, Gilerson A, Oo M, Zhou J, Chowhardy J et al (2006) The polarization properties of reflectance from coastal waters and the ocean-atmosphere system. SPIE 6360:636003Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carnesecchi F, Byfield V, Cipollini P, Corsini G, Diani M (2008) An optical model for the interpretation of remotely sensed multispectral images of oil. SPIE 7105:710504Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bianchi R, Cavalli RM, Marino CM, Pignatti S, Poscolieri M (1995) Use of airborne hyperspectral images to assess the spatial distribution of oil spilled during the Trecate blow-out (Northern Italy). SPIE 2585:352Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bagheri S, Stein M, Zetlin C (1995) Utility of airborne videography as an oil spill-response monitoring system. In: Cheremisinoff PN (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental control technology. Gulf, Houston, p 367Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Marois R (2004) Oil spill remote sensing: laser fluorosensor demonstration flights off the east coast of Canada. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem, pp. 317–334Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Marois R (2005) Oil spill remote sensing flights in the coastal waters around Newfoundland. In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, AltarumGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Palmer D, Borstad GA, Boxall SR (1994) Airborne multi spectral remote sensing of the January 1993 Shetlands oil spill. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol II, p 546Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wadsworth A, Looyen WJ, Reuter R, Petit M (1992) Aircraft experiments with visible and infrared sensors. Int J Remote Sens 13:1175Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang D, Gong F, Pan D, Hao Z, Zhu Q (2010) Introduction to the airborne marine surveillance platform and its application to water quality monitoring in China. Oceanol Sin 29:33Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Locke C, White M, Michel J, Henry C, Sellars JD, Aslaksen ML (2008) Use of vertical digital photography at the Bayou Perot, LA, spill for oil mapping and volume estimation. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 127Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stelmaszewski A, Krol T, Toczek H (2009) Light scattering in Baltic crude oil – seawater emulsion. Oceanologia 51:405Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hurford N (1989) Review of remote sensing technology. In: Lodge AE (ed) The remote sensing of oil slicks. Wiley, Chichester, p 7Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goodman RH (1989) Application of the technology in North America. In: Lodge AE (ed) The remote sensing of oil slicks. Wiley, Chichester, p 39Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Belore RC (1982) A device for measuring oil slick thickness. Spill Tech News 7:44Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neville RA, Thompson V, Dagg K, O’Neil RA (1979) An analysis of multispectral line scanner imagery from two test spills. In: Proceedings of first workshop sponsored by working group I of the pilot study on the use of remote sensing for the control of marine pollution, NATO challenges of modern society, p 201Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolus RL (1996) Airborne testing of a suite of remote sensors for oil spill detecting on water. In: Proceedings of the second thematic international airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol III, p 743Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salisbury JW, D’Aria DM, Sabins FF (1993) Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks. Remote Sens Environ 45:225Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hover G (1994) Testing of infrared sensors for U.S. Coast Guard oil spill response applications. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol I, p 47Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grierson IT (1998) Use of airborne thermal imagery to detect and monitor inshore oil spill residues during darkness hours. Environ Manage 22:905Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shih W-C, Andrews AB (2008) Infrared contrast of crude-oil-covered water surfaces. Opt Lett 33:3019Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown HM, Baschuk JJ, Goodman RH (1998) The limits of visibility of spilled oil sheens. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem, pp. 805–824Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clark RN, Swayze GA, Leifer I, Livo KE, Lundeem S et al (2010) A method for qualitative mapping of thick oil using imaging spectroscopy. United States Geological Survey. http://www.pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1101/
  43. 43.
    Leifer IR, Clark RN, Swayse G, Roberts D, Kokaly R et al (2011) Imaging spectroscopy of the deepwater horizon spill: a 21st century oil spill response. Proceedings of the 34th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response, pp. 270–295Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goodman RH (1988) Simple remote sensing system for the detection of oil on water. Environmental Studies Research Fund report no. 98, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brown CE (2011) Laser fluorosensors. In: Fingas MF (ed) Oil spill science and technology. Gulf, Oxford, pp 171–184Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, An J (2001) Laser fluorosensors: a survey of applications and developments of a versatile sensor. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:485Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brown CE, Nelson R, Fingas MF, Mullin JV (1997) Airborne laser fluorosensing: overflights during lift operations of a sunken oil barge. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Seattle, vol I, p 23Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brown CE, Marois R, Fingas MF, Choquet M, Monchalin J-P, Mullin J, Goodman R (2001) Airborne oil spill sensor testing: progress and recent developments. IOSC, Tampa, p 917Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2003) Review of the development of laser fluorosensors for oil spill application. Mar Pollut Bull 47:477Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hengstermann T, Reuter R (1990) Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface. Appl Opt 29:3218Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Balick L, DiBenedetto JA, Lutz SS (1997) Fluorescence emission spectral measurements for the detection of oil on shore. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol I, p 13Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sarma AK, Ryder AG (2006) Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of a biocrude oil and crude petroleum oil. Energy Fuels 20:783Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Samberg A (2007) The state-of-the-art of airborne laser systems for oil mapping. Can J Remote Sens 53:143Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jha MN, Gao Y (2008) Oil spill contingency planning using laser fluorosensors and web-based GIS. In: Proceedings oceans marine technology society, Quebec CityGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Diebel D (1989) Laser fluorosensing of mineral oil spirits. In: Lodge AE (ed) The remote sensing of oil slicks. Wiley, Chichester, p 127Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Geraci AL, Landolina F, Pantani L, Cecchi G (1993) Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control. IOSC, Tampa, FL, p 525Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hoge FE, Swift RN (1980) Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter. Appl Opt 19:3269Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Piskozub J, Drozdowska V, Varlamov V (1997) A lidar system for remote measurement of oil film thickness on sea surface. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol I, p 386Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goodman R, Brown CE (2005) Oil detection limits for a number of remote sensing systems. In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, Halifax, Alterum conferencesGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dick R, Fruhwirth M, Brown C (1992) Laser fluorosensor work in Canada. In: Proceedings of the first thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, p 223Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    James RTB, Dick R (1996) Design of algorithms for the real-time airborne detection of littoral oil-spills by laser-induced fluorescence. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:1599Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Gamble RL, Myslicki GE (2002) The remote detection of submerged oil. In: Proceedings of the third R&D forum on high-density oil spill response, Brest France. IMO, pp 46–54Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brown CE, Marois R, Myslicki G, Fingas MF (2002) Initial studies on the remote detection of submerged orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor. AMOP, Environment Canada, Ottawa, p 773Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brown CE, Marois R, Myslicki G, Fingas MF, MacKay R (2003) Remote detection of submerged orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2003, Vancouver, p 779Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brown CE, Marois R, Gamble RL, Fingas MF (2003) Further studies on the remote detection of submerged orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:279Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brown CE, Fingas M, Marois R, Fieldhouse B, Gamble RL (2004) Remote sensing of water-in-oil emulsions: initial laser fluorosensor studies. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:295Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ulaby FT, Moore RK, Fung AK (1989) Microwave remote sensing: active and passive. Artech House, Norwood, p 1466Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goodman RH (1994) Remote sensing resolution and oil slick inhomogeneities. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p I-1-17Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fäst O (1986) Remote sensing of oil on water – air and space-borne systems. In: Proceedings of the DOOS seminar, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Skou N, Sorensen BM, Poulson A (1994) A new airborne dual frequency microwave radiometer for mapping and quantifying mineral oil on the sea surface. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 559Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mussetto MS, Yujiri L, Dixon DP, Hauss BI, Eberhard CD (1994) Passive millimeter wave radiometric sensing of oil spills. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications. ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol I, p 35Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhifu S, Wiesbeck W (1988) A study of passive microwave remote sensing. In: Proceedings of the 1988 international geoscience and remote sensing symposium, Edinburgh, p 1091Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Süss H, Grüner K, Wilson WJ (1989) Passive millimeter wave imaging: a tool for remote sensing. Alta Freq LVIII:457Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pelyushenko SA (1995) Microwave radiometer system for the detection of oil slicks. Spill Sci Technol Bull 2:249Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pelyushenko SA (1997) The use of microwave radiometer scanning system for detecting and identification of oil spills. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 381Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    McMahon OB, Brown ER, Daniels GD, Murphy TJ, Hover GL (1995) Oil thickness detection using wideband radiometry. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 1995, Long Beach, p 15Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McMahon OB, Murphy TJ, Brown ER (1997) Remote measurement of oil spill thickness. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p353Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nunziata F, Migliaccio M, Sobieski P (2008) A BPM two-scale contrast model. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS, Boston, vol IV, p 593Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Frysinger GS, Asher WE, Korenowski GM, Barger WR, Klusty MA, Frew NM, Nelson RK (1992) Study of ocean slicks by nonlinear laser processes in second-harmonic generation. J Geophys Res 97:5253Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alpers W, Hühnerfuss H (1987) Radar signatures of oil films floating on the sea surface. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS, Ann Arbor, p 741Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Poitevin J, Khaif C (1992) A numerical study of the backscattered radar power in presence of oil slicks on the sea surface. In: Proceedings of the first thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 171Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hühnerfuss H, Alpers W, Witte F (1989) Layers of different thicknesses in mineral oil spills detected by grey level textures of real aperture radar images. Int J Remote Sens 10:1093Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gens R (2008) Oceanographic applications of SAR remote sensing. GISci Remote Sens 45:275Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bartsch N, Grüner K, Keydel W, Witte F (1987) Contribution to oil spill detection and analysis with radar and microwave radiometer: results of the Archimedes II campaign. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote GE.25:677Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mastin G, Mason JJ, Bradley JD, Axline RM, Hover GL (1994) A comparative evaluation of SAR and SLAR. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 7Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2003) Synthetic aperture radar sensors: viable for marine oil spill response? Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:299Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zielinski O, Robbe N (2004) Past and future of airborne pollution control. In: Proceedings of the Interspill 2004, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dyring A, Fäst O (2004) MSS puts the aircraft in the oil spill tracking network. In: Proceedings of the Interspill 2004, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Intera Technologies (1984) Radar surveillance in support of the 1983 COATTF oil spill trials. Environment Canada report EE-51Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    C-CORE (Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering) (1981) Microwave systems for detecting oil slicks in ice-infested waters: phase I – literature review and feasibility study. Environment Canada report EPS 3-EC-81-3Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Macklin JT (1992) The imaging of oil slicks by synthetic aperture radar. GEC J Res 10:19Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kozu TT, Umehara T, Ojima T, Suitsu T, Masuyko H, Inomata H (1987) Observation of oil slicks on the ocean by X-band SLAR. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 1987, Ann Arbor, p 735Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Madsen S, Skou N, Sorensen BM (1994) Comparison of VV and HH polarized SLAR for detection of oil on the sea surface. In: Proceedings of the second thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments: needs, solutions and applications, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 498Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Migliaccio M, Nunziata F, Gambardella A (2009) On the co-polarized phase difference for oil spill observation. Int J Remote Sens 30:1587Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hühnerfuss H, Alpers W, Dannhauer H, Gade M, Lange PA, Neumann V, Wismann V (1996) Natural and man-made sea slicks in the North Sea investigated by a helicopter-borne 5-frequency radar scatterometer. Int J Remote Sens 17:1567Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hielm JH (1989) NIFO comparative trials. In: Lodge AE (ed) The remote sensing of oil slicks. Wiley, Chichester, p 67Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Marghany M, Cracknell AP, Hasim M (2009) Modification of fractal algorithm for oil spill detection from RADARSAT-1 SAR data. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinform 11:96Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gade M, Alpers W, Huehnerfuss H, Wismann V (1996) Radar signatures of different oceanic surface films measured during the SIR-C-X-SAR missions. In: Proceedings of the remote sensing 1996. Balkema, Rotterdam, p 233Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Okamoto K, Kobayashi T, Masuko H, Ochiai S, Horie H, Kumagai H, Nakamua K, Shimada M (1996) Results of experiments using synthetic aperture radar onboard the European remote sensing satellite 1–4. Artificial oil pollution detection. J Commun Res Lab 43:327Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Migliaccio M, Gambardella A, Tranfaglia A (2007) SAR polarimetry to observe oil spills. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote 45:506Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gambardella A, Migliaccio M, De Grandi G (2007) Wavelet polarimetric SAR signature analysis of sea oil spills and look-alike features. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 983Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nunziata F, Gambardella A, Migliaccio M (2008) On the use of dual-polarized SAR data for oil spill observation. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol II, p 225Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Forget P, Brochu P (1996) Slicks, waves and fronts observed in sea coastal area by an X-band airborne synthetic aperture radar. Remote Sens Environ 57:1Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Marmorino GO, Thompson DR, Graber HC, Trump CL (1997) Correlation of oceanographic signatures appearing in synthetic aperture radar and interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery with in-situ measurements. J Geophys Res 18:723Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nøst E, Egset CN (2006) Oil spill detection system – results from field trials. In: Proceedings oceans marine technology society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gangeskar R (2004) Automatic oil-spill detection by marine X-band radars. Sea Technol 45:40–45Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Topouzelis K, Karanthanassi V, Pavlakis VP, Rokos D (2009) Potentiality of feed-forward neural networks for classifying dark formation to oil spills and look-alikes. Geocarto Int 24:179Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Solberg R, Theophilopoulos N (1997) ENVISYS – a solution for automatic oil spill detection in the Mediterranean. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 3Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ferraro G, Baschek B, de Montpellier G, Njoten O, Perkovic M, Vespe M (2010) On the SAR derived alert in the detection of oil spills according to the analysis of the EGEMP. Mar Pollut Bull 60:91–102Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wahl T, Eldhuset K, Skøelv Å (1993) Ship traffic monitoring and oil spill detection using ERS-1. In: Proceedings of the international symposium “operationalization of remote sensing”, ITC, Enschede, p 97Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bern T-I, Wahl T, Anderssen T, Olsen R (1993) Oil spill detection using satellite based SAR: experience from a field experiment. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 59:423Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yan X-H, Clemente-Colon P (1997) The maximum similarity share matching (MSSM) method applied to oil spill feature tracking observed in SAR imagery. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 43Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bentz CM, Politano AT, Ebecken NFF (2007) Automatic recognition of coastal and oceanic environmental events with orbital radars. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 914Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Trivero P, Biamino W, Nirchio F (2007) High resolution COSMO-SkyMed SAR images for oil spills automatic detection. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 2Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tian W, Shao Y, Wang S (2008) A system for automatic identification of oil spill in ENVISAT ASAR. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol III, p 1394Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shao Y, Tian W, Wang S, Zhang F (2008) Oil spill monitoring using multi-temporal SAR and microwave scatterometer data. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol III, p 1378Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rodriguez MH, Bannerman K, Caceres RG, Pellon de Miranda F, Pedroso EC (2007) Cantarell natural seep modelling using SAR derived ocean surface wind and meteo-oceanographic buoy data. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 3257Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Robson M, Secker J, Vachon PW (2006) Evaluation of eCognition for assisted target detection and recognition in SAR imagery. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2006, Denver, p 145Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Garcia-Pineda O, MacDonald I, Zimmer B (2008) Synthetic aperture radar image processing using the supervised textural-neural network classification algorithms. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS, Boston, vol IV, p 1265Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Morales DJ, Moctezuma M, Parmiggiani F (2008) Detection of oil slicks in SAR images using hierarchial MRF. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS, Boston, vol III, p 1390Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bertacca M (2006) A FEXP model short range dependence analysis for improving oil slicks and low-wind areas discrimination in SAR imagery. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS, Denver, p 959Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Topouzelis KN (2008) Oil spill detection by SAR images: dark formation detection, feature extraction and classification algorithms. Sensors 8:6642Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Topouzelis K, Karanthanassi V, Pavlakis P, Rokos D (2008) Dark formation detection using neural networks. Int J Remote Sens 29:4705Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Topouzelis K, Stathakis D, Karanthanassi V (2009) Investigation of genetic contribution to feature selection for oil spill detection. Int J Remote Sens 30:179Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Karathanassi V, Topouzelis K, Pavlakis P, Rokos D (2006) An object-oriented methodology to detect oil spills. Int J Remote Sens 27:5235Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Topouzelis K, Karanthanassi V, Pavlakis P, Rokos D (2007) Detection and discrimination between oil spills and look-alike phenomena through neural networks. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 62:264Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Karantzalos K, Argialas D (2008) Automatic detection and tracking of oil spills in SAR imagery with level set segmentation. Int J Remote Sens 29:6281Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tahvonen K, Pyhaelahti T (2006) The use of environmental data in reliability: assessment of oil spill detection by SAR imagery. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2006, Denver, p 3671Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Karvonen J, Heiler I, Similae M, Tahvonen K (2006) Oil spill detection with RADARSAT-1 in the Baltic Sea. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2006, Denver, p 4075Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shi L, Ivanov AY, He M, Zhao C (2008) Oil spill mapping in the western part of the East China Sea using synthetic aperture radar imagery. Int J Remote Sens 29:6315Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Muellenhoff O, Bulgarelli B, Ferraro G, Topouzelis K (2008) The use of ancillary metocean data for the oil spill probability assessment in SAR images. Fresenius Environ Bull 17:1382Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Muellenhoff O, Bulgarelli B, Ferraro G, Perkovic M, Topouzelis K, Sammarini V (2008) Geospatial modelling of metocean and environmental ancillary data for the oil probability assessment in SAR images. Proc SPIE 7110:71100RGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Assilzadeh H, Gao Y (2008) Oil spill emergency response mapping for coastal area using SAR imagery and GIS. In: Proceedings oceans marine technology society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Migliaccio M (2005) A physical approach for the observation of oil spills in SAR images. IEEE J Ocean Eng 30:496Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shu Y, Li J, Yousef H, Gomes G (2010) Dark-spot detection from SAR intensity imagery with spatial density thresholding for oil-spill monitoring. Remote Sens Environ 114:2026Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Migliaccio M, Ferrara G, Gambardella A, Nunziata F, Sorrentino A (2007) A physically consistent stochastic model to observe oil spills and strong scatterers on SLC SAR images. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 1322Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gambardella A, Giacinto G, Migliaccio M (2008) On the mathematical formulation of the SAR oil-spill observation problem. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol III, p 1382Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Marghany M, Cracknell AP, Hasim M (2009) Comparison between RADARSAT-1 SAR different data modes for oil spill detection by a fractal box counting algorithm. Int J Dig Earth 2:237Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Danisi A, Di Martino G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G et al (2007) SAR simulation of ocean scenes covered by oil slicks with arbitrary shapes. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 1314Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zhang F, Shao Y, Tian W, Wang S (2008) Oil spill identification based on textural information of SAR images. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol IV, p 1308Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tello M, Bonastre R, Lopez-Martinez C, Mallorqui JJ, Danisi A (2007) Characterization of local regularity in SAR imagery by means of multiscale techniques: application to oil spill detection. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 5228Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lounis B, Mercier G, Belhadj-Aissa A (2008) Statistical similarity measure for oil slick detection in SAR images. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol I, p 233Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pelizzari S, Bioucas-Dias J (2007) Oil spill segmentation of SAR images via graph cuts. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 1318Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ferraro G, Bernardini A, David M, Meyer-Roux S, Muellenhoff O et al (2007) Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: a demonstration in the Adriatic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 54:403Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ferraro G, Meyer-Roux S, Muellenhoff O, Pavilha M, Svetak J, Tarchi D, Topouzelis K (2009) Long-term monitoring of oil spills in European seas. Int J Remote Sens 30:627Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Adamo M, De Carolis G, De Pasquale V, Pasquariello G (2006) On the combined use of sun glint MODIS and MERIS signatures and SAR data to detect oil slicks. Proc SPIE 6360:63600GGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sipelgas L, Uiboupin R (2007) Elimination of oil spill like structures from radar image using MODIS data. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 429Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vesecky JF, Laws K, Paduan JD (2008) Monitoring of coastal vessels using surface wave HF radars: multiple frequency, multiple site and multiple antenna considerations. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol I, p 405Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pinel N, Bourlier C (2008) Forward propagation of thick oil spills on sea surface for a coastal coherent radar. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol IV, p 1125Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Demarty Y, Gobin V, Thirion L, Guinvarc’h R, Lesturgie M (2007) Exact electromagnetic modeling of the scattering of realistic sea surfaces for HFSWR applications. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 1004Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Schultz-Stellenfleth J, Lehner S, Koenig T, Reppucci A, Brusch S (2007) Use of tandem pairs of ERS-2 and ENVISAT SAR data for the analysis of oceanographic and atmospheric processes. IGARSS, Barcelona, p 3265Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Goodman RH, Fingas MF (1988) The use of remote sensing for the determination of dispersant effectiveness. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:377Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Jensen HV, Andersen JHS, Daling PS, Noest E (2008) Recent experience from multiple remote sensing and monitoring to improve oil spill response operations. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 407Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hollinger JP, Mennella RA (1973) Oil spills: measurements of their distributions and volumes by multifrequency microwave radiometry. Science 181:54Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lehr WJ (2010) Visual observations and the Bonn agreement. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:669Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Horstein B (1973) The visibility of oil-water discharges. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 1973, Washington, DC, pp 91–99Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Parker HD, Cormack D (1979) Evaluation of infrared line scan (IRLS) and side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) over controlled oil spills in the North Sea. Warren Spring Laboratory Report, StevenageGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hurford N, Martinelli FN (1982) Use of an infrared line scanner and a side-looking airborne radar to detect oil discharges from ships. Warren Spring Laboratory Report, StevenageGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hurford N, Martinelli FN (1984) Use of an infrared line scanner and a side-looking airborne radar to detect oil discharges from ships. In: Massin JM (ed) Remote sensing for the control of marine pollution. Plenum Press, New York, p 405Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    MacDonald IR, Guinasso NL Jr, Ackleson SG, Amos JF, Duckworth R, Sassen R, Brooks JM (1993) Natural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico visible from space. J Geophys Res 16:351Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Brown HM, Bittner JP, Goodman RH (1995) Visibility limits of spilled oil sheens. Imperial Oil Internal Report, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Monchalin J-P, Neron C, Padioleau C (2006) Airborne measurement of oil slick thickness. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 1:911Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Reimer ER, Rossiter JR (1987) Measurement of oil thickness on water from aircraft; A: active microwave spectroscopy; B: electromagnetic thermoelastic emission. Environmental Studies Revolving Fund report no. 078Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Goodman R, Brown H, Bittner J (1997) The measurement of thickness of oil on water. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, ERIM, Ann Arbor, vol I, p 31Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Aussel JD, Monchalin J-P (1989) Laser-ultrasonic measurement of oil thickness on water from aircraft, feasibility study. Industrial Materials Research Institute Report, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Krapez JC, Cielo P (1992) Optothermal evaluation of oil film thickness. J Appl Phys 72:1255Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Choquet M, Héon R, Vaudreuil G, Monchalin J-P, Padioleau C, Goodman RH (1993) Remote thickness measurement of oil slicks on water by laser ultrasonics. IOSC, BouchervilleGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Choquet M, Blouin A, Drolet D, Monchalin J-P, Hardwick CD (1997) The LURSOT sensor: providing absolute measurements of oil slick thickness. In: Proceedings of the fourth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, vol I. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 393Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2003) Development of airborne oil thickness measurements. Mar Pollut Bull 47:485Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Monchalin J-P, Neron C, Padioleau C (2005) Airborne oil slick thickness measurements: realization of a dream. In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, AltarumGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Monchalin JP (1986) Optical detection of ultrasound. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 33:485Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Svejkovsky J, Muskat J, Mullin J (2008) Mapping oil spill thickness with a portable multispectral aerial imager. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 131Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lue L, Ge B, Yao W, Zhang Y (2011) A method for measuring the thickness of transparent oil film on water surface using laser trigonometry. Opt Lasers Eng 49:13Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lu Y-C, Tian Q-J, Li Z (2011) The remote sensing inversion theory of offshore oil slick thickness based on a two-beam interference model. Sci China Earth Sci 54:4154Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Optimare (2011) http://www.optimare.de/cms/en/divisions/fek.html. Accessed June 2011
  176. 176.
    Swedish Space Corporation (2011) http://www.ssc.se/?id=5772. Accessed June 2011
  177. 177.
    Armstrong L, Fäst O, Schneider HA, Abrahamsson AH (2008) Integration of airborne AIS brings a new dimension to the detection of illegal discharge of oil spills. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 179Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2005) A review of current global oil spill surveillance, monitoring and remote sensing capabilities. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:789Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Dean KG, Stringer WJ, Groves JE, Ahlinas K, Royer TC (1990) The EXXON VALDEZ oil spill: satellite analyses. In: Spaulding ML, Reed M (eds) Oil spills: management and legislative implications. ASCE, New York, p 492Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Dawe BR, Parashar SK, Ryan TP, Worsfold RO (1981) The use of satellite imagery for tracking the KURDISTAN oil spill. Environment Canada Report EPS 4-EC-81-6, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Alfoldi TT, Prout NA (1982) The use of satellite data for monitoring oil spills in Canada. Environment Canada Report EPS 3-EC-82-5, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cross A (1992) Monitoring marine oil pollution using AVHRR data: observations off the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during January 1991. Int J Remote Sens 13:781Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rand RS, Davis DA, Satterwhite MB, Anderson JE (1992) Methods of monitoring the Persian Gulf oil spill using digital and hardcopy multiband data. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Report, TEC-0014Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Al-Ghunaim I, Abuzar M, Al-Qurnas FS (1992) Delineation and monitoring of oil spill in the Arabian Gulf using landsat thematic mapper (TM) data. In: Proceedings of the first thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 1151Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Al-Hinai KG, Khan MA, Dabbagh AE, Bader TA (1993) Analysis of landsat thematic mapper data for mapping oil slick concentrations – Arabian Gulf oil spill 1991. Arab J Sci Eng 18:85Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Cecamore P, Ciappa A, Perusini V (1992) Monitoring the oil spill following the wreck of the tanker HAVEN in the Gulf of Genoa through satellite remote sensing techniques. In: Proceedings of the first thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. ERIM, Ann Arbor, p 183Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Voloshina IP, Sochnev OY (1992) Observations of surface contamination of the region of the Kol’shii Gulf from IR measurements. Sov J Remote Sens 9:996Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Li Y, Yu S, Ma L, Liu M, Li Q (2008) Satellite image processing and analyzing for marine oil spills. Proc SPIE 7145:712311Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Alawadi F, Amos C, Byfield V, Petrov P (2008) The application of hyperspectral image techniques on Modis data for the detection of oil spills in the RSA. Proc SPIE 7110:71100QGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lotliker A, Mupparthy R, Kumer S, Nayak S (2008) Evaluation of hi-resolution MODIS-Aqua data for oil spill monitoring. Proc SPIE 7150:71500SGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Clark CD (1989) Satellite remote sensing for marine pollution investigations. Mar Pollut Bull 20:92Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Noerager JA, Goodman RH (1991) Oil tracking, containment and recovery during the EXXON VALDEZ response. In: Proceedings of the IOSC, Washington, DC, p 193Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Li Y, Liu Y, Ma L, Li X (2007) Oil spill monitoring using MODIS data. Proc SPIE 6795:67955GGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Li Y, Ma L, Yu S, Li C, Li Q (2008) Remote sensing of marine oil spills and its applications. SPIE 71450:C712311Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Shrivastava H, Singh TP (2010) Assessment and development of algorithms to detection of oil spills using MODIS data. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 38:161Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Leifer I, Lehr B, Simecek-Beatty D, Bradley E, Clark R, Dennison P, Hu Y, Matheson S, Jones C, Holt B, Roberts D, Svejkovsky J, Swayse G (2011) State of the art satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: application to the BP deepwater horizon oil spill. Remote Sens Environ 124:185–209Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Li X, Ge L, Hu Z, Chang H-C (2010) The 2009 Montara oil spill in the Timor sea as observed by earth observation satellites. University of New South Wales, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Chust G, Sagarminaga Y (2007) The multi-angle view of MISR detects oil slicks under sun glitter conditions. Remote Sens Environ 107:232Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    ud Din S, Al Dousari A, Literathy P (2008) Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait – interpretations from thermal remote sensing data. J Environ Manage 86:605Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Casciello D, Lacava T, Pergola N, Tramutoli V (2007) Robust satellite techniques (RST) for oil spill detection and monitoring. In: Proceedings of the MultiTemp 2007–2007 international workshop on the analysis of multi-temporal remote sensing images, LeuvenGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2001) New space-borne sensors for oil spill response. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2001, Tampa, p 911Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF (2001) Upcoming satellites: potential applicability to oil spill remote sensing. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:495Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Brown CE, Fingas MF, Lukowski TJ (2002) Airborne and space-borne synergies: the old dog teaches tricks to a new bird. In: Proceedings of the fifth international airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition, VeridienGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Biegert EK, Baker RN, Berry JL, Mott S, Scantland S (1997) Gulf offshore satellite applications project detects oil slicks using RADARSAT. In: International symposium: geomatics in the era of RADARSAT, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Werle D, Tittley B, Theriault E, Whitehouse B (1997) Using RADARSAT-1 SAR imagery to monitor the recovery of the Irving Whale oil barge. In: Proceedings of international symposium: geomatics in the era of RADARSAT, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kwarteng AY, Singhroy V, Saint-Jean R, Al-Ajmi D (1997) RADARSAT SAR data assessment of the oil lakes in the greater Burgan oil field, Kuwait. In: Proceedings of international symposium: geomatics in the era of RADARSAT, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ivanov AY, Ermoshkin IS (2004) Mapping of oil spills in the Caspian Sea using the ERS-1.ERS-2 SAR image quick-looks and GIS. In: Proceedings of the Interspill 2004, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Fortuny J, Tarchi D, Ferraro G, Sieber A (2004) The use of satellite radar imagery in the Prestige accident. Interspill 2004, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Torres Palenzuela JM, Vilas LG, Cuadrado MS (2006) Use of ASAR images to study the evolution of the prestige oil spill off the Galician coast. Int J Remote Sens 27:1931Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gauthier M-F, Weir L, Ou Z, Arkett M, De Abreu R (2007) Integrated satellite tracking of pollution: a new operational program. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2007, Barcelona, p 967Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Brekke C, Solberg AHS (2005) Oil spill detection by satellite remote sensing. Remote Sens Environ 95:1Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Olga L, Marina M, Tatiana B, Andrey K, Vladimir K (2008) Multisensor approach to operational oil pollution monitoring in coastal zones. In: Proceedings of the IGARSS 2008, Boston, vol III, p 1386Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kostianoy A, Lavrova O, Mityagina M, Bocharova T, Litovchenko K et al (2007) Complex monitoring of oil pollution in the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas. In: Proceedings of the Envisat symposium, Montreux, p 23Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    DeAbreu R, Gauthier M-F, Wychen W (2006) SAR-based oil pollution surveillance in Canada: operational implementation and research priorities. In: Proceedings Ocean SAR 2006 – third workshop on coastal and marine applications of SAR, St. John’sGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Fingas MF, Brown CE (2002) Detection of oil in and under ice. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:199–214Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Redman R, Pfeifer C, Brzozowski E, Markian R (2008) A comparison of methods for locating, tracking and quantifying submerged oil used during the T/B DBL 152 incident. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 255Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Wendelboe G, Fonseca ELM, Hvidbak F, Mutschler M (2009) Detection of heavy oil on the seabed by application of a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:791Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hansen KA (2010) Research efforts for detection and recovery of submerged oil. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:1055Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Michel J (2008) Spills of non floating oil: evaluation of response technologies. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 261Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Pfeifer C, Brzozowski E, Markian R, Redman R (2008) Quantifying percent cover of submerged oil using underwater video imagery. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 269Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Pfeifer C, Brzozowski E, Markian R, Redman R (2008) Long-Term monitoring of submerged oil in the Gulf of Mexico following the T/B DBL 152 incident. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 275Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Camilli R, Bingham B, Reddy CM, Nelson RK, Duryea AN (2009) Method for rapid localization of seafloor petroleum contamination using concurrent mass spectrometry and acoustic positioning. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1505Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Lehr WJ (2008) The potential use of small UAS in spill response. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 431Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Donnay E (2009) Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:771Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Li K, Fingas MF, Paré JRP, Boileau P, Beaudry P, Dainty E (1994) The use of remote-controlled helicopters for air sampling in an emergency response situation. Arct Mar Oilspill Progr Tech Sem 2:139Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Goodman RH (1994) Overview and future trends in oil spill remote sensing. Spill Sci Technol 1:11Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Huisman J (2006) Use of surveillance technology to support response decision making and impact assessment. In: Proceedings of the Interspill 2006, LondonGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Carpenter A (2007) The Bonn agreement aerial surveillance programme: trends in North Sea oil pollution: 1986–2004. Mar Pollut Bull 54:149Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    De Dominicis M, Pinardi N, Coppini G, Tonani M, Guarnieri A et al (2009) InterspillGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Allen J, Walsh B (2008) Enhanced oil spill surveillance, detection and monitoring through the applied technology of unmanned air systems. In: Proceedings of the IOSC 2008, Savannah, p 113Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spill ScienceEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Emergencies Science and Technology SectionEnvironment CanadaOttawaCanada