Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Mariculture Systems, Integrated Land-Based

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_320-3

Definition of Subject

The Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) System is an aquaculture practice in which excretions of one or more organisms are utilized by other cultured organisms from different trophic (nutritional) levels. IMTA systems are distinct from polyculture systems, which involve two or more species from the same or different trophic levels in the same water reservoir. In a typical IMTA, the various species are cultured in separate spatial entities, permitting intensification and optimization of production. The IMTA concept has been increasingly adopted in modern-day aquaculture, including land-based (Fig. 1) [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] and offshore mariculture [ 6, 7].


Construct Wetland Recirculate Aquaculture System Paracentrotus Lividus Ulva Lactuca Polyculture System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access


  1. 1.
    Goldman JC, Tenore RK, Ryther HJ, Corwin N (1974) Inorganic nitrogen removal in a combined tertiary treatment-marine aquaculture system. I. Removal efficiencies. Water Res 8:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ryther JH, Goldman JC, Gifford JE, Huguenin JE, Wing AS, Clarner JP, Williams LD, Lapointe BE (1975) Physical models of integrated waste recycling-marine polyculture systems. Aquaculture 5:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shpigel M, Neori A, Popper DM, Gordin H (1993) A proposed model for ‘environmentally clean’ land-based culture of fish, bivalves and seaweeds. Aquaculture 117:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shpigel M (2005) The use bivalves as biofilters and valuable product in land based aquaculture systems-review. In: Dame R, Olenin S (eds) The comparative roles of suspension-feeders in ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 400Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shpigel M, Neori A (1996) The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: I. Proportion of size and projected revenues. Aquac Eng 155:313–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Troell M, Halling C, Nilsson A, Buschmann AH, Kautsky N, Kautsky L (1997) Integrated marine cultivation of Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and salmon cages for reduced environmental impact and increased economic output. Aquaculture 156:45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Troell M, Norberg J (1998) Modelling output and retention of suspended solids in an integrated salmon-mussel culture. Ecol Model 110:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huguenin JH (1976) An examination of problems and potentials for future large-scale intensive seaweed culture systems. Aquaculture 9:313–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tenore KR (1976) Food chain dynamics of abalone in a polyculture system. Aquaculture 8:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hughes-Games WL (1977) Growing the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in sub-tropical seawater fishponds. I. Growth rate, survival and quality index. Aquaculture 11:217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gordin H, Motzkin F, Hughes-Games A, Porter C (1981) Seawater mariculture pond – an integrated system. Eur Aquac Spec Publ 6:1–13Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krom MD, Erez J, Porter CB, Ellner S (1989) Phytoplankton nutrient uptake dynamics in earthen marine fishponds under winter and summer conditions. Aquaculture 76:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Erez J, Krom MD, Neuwirth T (1990) Daily oxygen variations in marine fish ponds, Elat, Israel. Aquaculture 84:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shpigel M, Fridman R (1990) Propagation of the manila clam Tapes semidecussatus in the effluent of marine aquaculture ponds in Elat, Israel. Aquaculture 90:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shpigel M, Blaylock RA (1991) The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as a biological filter for a marine fish aquaculture pond. Aquaculture 92:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shpigel M, Lee J, Soohoo B, Fridman R, Gordin H (1993) The use of effluent water from fish ponds as a food source for the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Tunberg. Aquac Fish Manag 244:529–543Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Neori A, Shpigel M (1999) Using algae to treat effluents and feed invertebrates in sustainable integrated mariculture. World Aquacult 302:46–51Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neori A, Shpigel M, Scharfstein B (2001) Land-based low-pollution integrated mariculture of fish, seaweed and herbivores: principles of development, design, operation and economics. Aquaculture Europe 2001 book of abstracts, European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication no 29, pp 190–191Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lefebvre S, Barille L, Clerc M (2000) Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) feeding responses to a fish-farm effluent. Aquaculture 187:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones AB, Dennison WC, Preston NP (2001) Integrated mariculture of shrimp effluent by sedimentation, oyster filtration and macroalgal absorption: a laboratory scale study. Aquaculture 193:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haines KC (1975) Growth of the Carrageenan-producing tropical red seaweed Hypnea musciformis in surface water, 870 m deep water, effluent from a clam mariculture system, and in deep water enriched with artificial fertilizers or domestic sewage. In: 10th European symposium on marine biology, vol 1, Ostend, Belgium, pp 207–220Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Langton RW, Haines KC, Lyon RE (1977) Ammonia nitrogen produced by the bivalve mollusc Tapes japonica and its recovery by the red seaweed Hypnea musciformis in a tropical mariculture system. Helgoländer wiss Meeresunters 30:217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lapointe BE, Ryther HJ (1978) Some aspects of the growth and yield of Gracilaria tikvahiae in culture. Aquaculture 15:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DeBusk TA, Blakeslee M, Ryther JH (1986) Studies on the outdoor cultivation of Ulva lactuca. L. Bot Mar 29:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bird K (1989) Intensive seaweed cultivation. Aquac Mag 1989:29–34Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vandermeulen H, Gordin H (1990) Ammonium uptake using Ulva (Chlorophyta) in intensive fishpond systems: mass culture and treatment of effluent. J Appl Phycol 2:363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cohen I, Neori A (1991) Ulva lactuca biofilters for marine fishponds effluents. Bot Mar 34:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Neori A, Ellne SP, Boyd CE, Krom MD (1993) The integration of seaweed biofilters with intensive fish ponds to improve water quality and recapture nutrients. In: Moshiri GA (ed) Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 603–607Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schuenhoff A, Shpigel M, Lupatsch I, Ashkenazi A, Msuya FE, Neori A (2003) A semi-commercial, integrated system for the culture of fish and seaweed. Aquaculture 2211–4:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shpigel M, Neori A, Marshall A (1996) The suitability of several introduced species of abalone Gastropoda: Haliotidae for land-based culture with pond grown seaweed in Israel. Isr J Aquacult Bamidgeh 484:192–200Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Butterworth A (2010) Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems incorporating abalone and seaweeds. A report for Nuffield Australia Farming Scholars, Nuffield Australia Project no 914Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nobre AM, Robertson-Andersson D, Neori A, Sankar K (2010) Ecological-economic assessment of aquaculture options: comparison between abalone monoculture and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture of abalone and seaweeds. Aquaculture 306:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Neori A, Chopin T, Troell M, Buschmann AH, Kraemer GP, Halling C, Shpigel M, Yarish C (2004) Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture. Aquaculture 231:361–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bunting SW, Shpigel M (2009) Evaluating the economic potential of horizontally integrated land-based marine aquaculture. Aquaculture 294:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Subandar A, Petrell RJ, Harrison PJ (1993) Laminaria culture for reduction of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in salmon farm effluent. J Appl Phycol 5:455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ahn O, Petrell R, Harrison PJ (1998) Ammonium and nitrate uptake by Laminaria saccharina and Nereocystis luetkeana originating from a salmon sea cage farm. J Appl Phycol 10:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buschmann AH, Troell M, Kautsky N, Kautsky L (1996) Integrated tank cultivation of salmonids and Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 326(327):75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chopin T, Yarish C (1998) Nutrients or not nutrients? That is the question in seaweed aquaculture… and the answer depends on the type and purpose of the aquaculture system. World Aquacul Mag 29(31–33):60–61Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Troell M, Rönnbäck P, Halling C, Kautsky N, Buschmann A (1999) Ecological engineering in aquaculture: use of seaweeds for removing nutrients from intense mariculture. J Appl Phycol 11:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ruokolahti C (1988) Effects of fish farming on growth and chlorophyll content of Cladophora. Mar Pollut Bull 19:166–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rönnberg O, Ådjers K, Roukolathi C, Bondestam M (1992) Effects of fish farming on growth epiphytes and nutrient content of Fucus vesiculosus L. in the Åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea. Aquat Bot 42:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chopin T, Yarish C, Wilkes R, Belyea E, Lu S, Mathieson A (1999) Developing Porphyra/salmon integrated aquaculture for bioremediation and diversification of the aquaculture industry. J Appl Phycol 11:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Folke C, Kautsky N (1989) The role of ecosystems for a sustainable development of aquaculture. Ambio 18:234–243Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Soto D (2009) Integrated mariculture, a global review, vol 529, FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    GENESIS (2004) Development of a generic approach to sustainable integrated marine aquaculture for European environments and markets (European Economic Community; IPS-2000-102)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    ENVIROPHYTE (2009) Improvement of the cost effectiveness of marine land-based aquaculture facilities through use of Constructed Wetlands with Salicornia as an environmentally friendly biofilter and a valuable by-product (European Economic Community; SME – 37162)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Neori A, Ragg NLC, Shpigel M (1998) The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in intensive land-based systems: II. Performance and nitrogen partitioning within integrated abalone Haliotis tuberculata and macroalgae Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria conferta culture system. Aquac Eng 17(4):215–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shpigel M, Ben-Ezra D, Shauli L, Sagi M, Ventura Y, Samocha T, Lee JJ (2013). Constructed Wetland with Salicornia as a Biofilter for Mariculture Effluents. Aquaculture 412:412–413Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shpigel M, Ragg NC Lupatsch I, Neori A (1999) Protein content determines the nutritional value of the seaweed Ulva lactuca for the abalone Haliotis tuberculata and Haliotis discus hannai. J Shelfish Res. 18(1):227–233Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shpigel MS, Schlosser A, Ben-Amotz AL, Lawrence JM, Lawrence (2006) Effect of dietary carotenoid on the gut and the gonad of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Aquaculture 261; 1269-1280Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shpigel M, Neori A (2007) Evaluation of macroalgae, microalgae, and bivalves as biofilters in sustainable land-based mariculture systems. In: Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities Theresa M. Bert, (Ed.). Klewer Publications, Dordrecht, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Neori A, Cohen I, Gordin H (1991) Ulva lactuca biofilters for marine fish pond. II. Growth rate yield and C:N ratio. Bot. Mar., 34:483–489Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boarder SJ, Shpigel M, (2001) Comparative performances of juvenile Haliotis roei fed on enriched Ulva rigida and various artificial diets. J. Shellfish Res. 20(2):653–659Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shpigel M Blaylock RA (1991) The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, as a biological filter for marine fish aquaculture pond. Aquaculture 92(2–3):187–197Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zmora O, Shpigel M (2006) Intensive mass production of Artemia in a recirculated system. Aquaculture 255:488-494Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Center for MaricultureEilatIsrael