Advertisement

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

  • E. Robert Schwartz
  • Heidi H. Allespach
  • Samir Sabbag
  • Ushimbra Buford
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

Depressive and bipolar disorders are medical conditions which are often first diagnosed and treated in primary care settings [1, 2]. Hence, family physicians are in a frontline position to provide optimal care for patients who suffer from these disorders. This chapter will provide succinct and practical information on the diagnosis and most effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments of these disorders in a primary care setting. Newer therapies, such as deep brain stimulation and special populations, will also be discussed.

Epidemiology

Mood disorders , such as major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder (PDD; formerly dysthymic disorder), and bipolar disorders are quite common [ 3]. The lifetime prevalence of having any type of mood disorder is 20 %. In 2012, it was estimated that 10.4 million adults aged 18 or older in the USA had at least one major depressive episode resulting in severe impairment in the past year. This represented 4.5 % of all US adults...

Keywords

Bipolar Disorder Depressive Disorder Deep Brain Stimulation Major Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Episode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Culpepper L. The diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder: decision-making in primary care. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014; 16(3): PCC.13r01609. Published online 19 June 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferguson JM. Depression: diagnosis and management for the primary care physician. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;2(5):173–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2013Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS. Review: twin studies show that genes and individual environmental influences contribute to the aetiology of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smoller JW, Finn CT. Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2003;123C:48–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pies RW. WHIPLASHED: a mnemonic for recognizing bipolar depression. Psychiatric Times. 2007; http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/bipolar-disorder/whiplashed-mnemonic-recognizing-bipolar-depression/page/0/1.
  9. 9.
    Luoma JB, Martin CE, Pearson JL. Contact with mental health and primary care providers before suicide: a review of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(6):909–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guintivano J, et al. Identification and replication of a combined epigenetic and genetic biomarker predicting suicide and suicidal behaviors. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171(12):1287–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zisook S, Corruble E, Duan N, Iglewicz A, Karam EG, Lanuoette N, Lebowitz B, Pies R, Reynolds C, Seay K, Katherine Shear M, Simon N, Young IT. The bereavement exclusion and the DSM-5. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29:425–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cameron C, Habert J, Anand L, Furtado M. Optimizing the management of depression: primary care experience. Psychiatry Res. 2014;220 Suppl 1:S45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schulz P, Arora G. Depression. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2015;21(3 Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry):756–71.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, Anderson IM. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29(5):459–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Serafini G, Howland RH, Rovedi F, Girardi P, Amore M. The role of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014;12(5):444–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stahl SM. Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: the Prescriber’s Guide. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qureshi NA, Al-Bedah AM. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:639–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ketter TA, Wang PW. Handbook of diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2010.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ketter TA, Miller S, Dell’Osso B, Calabrese JR, Frye MA, Citrome L. Balancing benefits and harms of treatments for acute bipolar depression. J Affect Disor. 2014;169:S24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vieta E, Sanchez-Moreno J. Acute and long-term treatment of mania. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(2):165–79.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Connolly KR, Thase ME. The clinical management of bipolar disorder: a review of evidence-based guidelines. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011; 13(4): PCC.10r01097.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sachs GS, Nierenberg AA, Calabrese JR, Marangell LB, Wisniewski SR, Gyulai L, et al. Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1711–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cuijpers P. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2015;28(1):24–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pomm HA, Pomm RM. Management of the addicted patient in primary care. New York: Springer Publishing; 2007.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loo C, Katalinic N, Mitchell PB, Greenberg B. Physical treatments for bipolar disorder: a review of electroconvulsive therapy, stereotactic surgery and other brain stimulation techniques. J Affect Disord. 2011;132(1):1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cleary DR, Ozpinar A, Raslan AM, Ko AL. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now. Neurosurg Focus. 2015;38(6).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vitiello B. Developmental aspects of pediatric psychopharmacology. In: McVoy M, Findling R, editors. Clinical manual of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2nd ed. 2013. p. 4–6.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kilbourne AM, Post EP, Nossek A. Improving medical and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59(7):760–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Epstein RA, Moore KM, Bobo WV. Treatment of nonpsychotic major depression during pregnancy: patient safety and challenges. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2014;6:109–29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Orsolini L, Bellantuono C. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and breastfeeding: a systematic review. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2015;30(1):4–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Robert Schwartz
    • 1
  • Heidi H. Allespach
    • 1
  • Samir Sabbag
    • 2
  • Ushimbra Buford
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine and Community HealthUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations