Sexual Assault

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Sexual assault is an act of violence and aggression and represents a complex problem with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Because definitions vary among states, the term sexual assault is sometimes used interchangeably with rape. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s definition of rape recognizes that victims of rape and perpetrators may be of either gender and includes oral and anal penetration as well as penetration with an object. This definition also includes instances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent because of temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (including due to the influence of drugs or alcohol) or because of age. Physical resistance is not required on the part of the victim to demonstrate lack of consent [1, 2].

Keywords

Catheter Hepatitis Depression Transportation Smoke 

References

  1. 1.
    Committee Opinion No. 592. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Sexual assault. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123:905–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. Summary Reporting System (SRS) user manual version 1.0. Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. Washington, DC: FBI. 2013. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/nibrs/summary-reporting-system-srs-user-manual.
  3. 3.
    Black MC, Basile KC, Breiding MJ, Smith SG, Walters ML, Merrick MT, et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 summary report. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf.
  4. 4.
    Boykins A, Alvanzo A, Carson S, et al. Minority women victims of recent sexual violence: disparities in incident history. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(3):453–61. doi:10.1089/jwh.2009.1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Littleton HL, Grills-Taquechel AE, Buck KS, Rosman L, Dodd JC. Health risk behavior and sexual assault among ethnically diverse women. Psychol Women Q. 2013;37(1):7–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolitzky-Taylor K B, Ruggiero KJ, Danielson CK, Resnick HS, Hanson RF, Smith DW, … and Kilpatrick DG. Prevalence and correlates of dating violence in a national sample of adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(7):755–62.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lefley HP, Scott CS, Llabre M, Hicks D. Cultural beliefs about rape and victims’ response in three ethnic groups. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63(4):623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Committee Opinion No. 547. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Health care for women in the military and women veterans. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:1538–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davies M. Male sexual assault victims: a selective review of the literature and implications for support services. Aggress Violent Behav. 2002;7:203–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bullock CM, Beckson M. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2011;39(2):197–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bennice J, Resick PA, Mechanic M, Astin M. The relative effects of intimate partner physical and sexual violence on post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Violence Vict. 2003;18(1):87–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kilpatrick DG, Ruggiero KJ, Acierno R, Saunders BE, Resnick HS, Best CL. Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the national survey of adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:692–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown J, Burnette M, Cerulli C. Correlations between Sexual abuse histories, perceived danger, and PTSD among intimate partner violence victims. J Interpers Violence. 2014. pii: 0886260514553629. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. A national protocol for sexual assault medical forensic examinations: adults/adolescents. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: DOJ; 2013.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Linden J. Care of the adult patient after sexual assault. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:834–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Palmer CM, McNulty AM, D’Este C, Donovan B. Genital injuries in women reporting sexual assault. Sex Health. 2004;1(1):55–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pernoll ML, Benson RC. Benson and Pernoll’s handbook of obstetrics and gynecology (10th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division; 2001.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines [published erratum appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60:18]. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59(RR-12):1–110.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lamba H, Murphy SM. Sexual assault and sexually transmitted infections: an updated review. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:487–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murphy S, Kitchen V, Harris JR, et al. Rape and subsequent seroconversion to HIV. BMJ. 1989;299:718. [PubMed].PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Myles JE, Hirozawa A, Katz MH, et al. Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual assault. JAMA. 2000;284:1516–8. [PubMed].PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fong C. Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection after sexual assault: when is it indicated? Emerg Med J. 2001;18:242–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute’s. Clinical guidelines development program. http://www.hivguidelines.org/clinical-guidelines/post-exposure-prophylaxis/hiv-prophylaxis-following-non-occupational-exposure/.
  24. 24.
    Basson R, Baram DA. Sexuality, sexual dysfunction, and sexual assault. In: Berek JS, editor. Berek and Novak’s gynecology. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. p. 270–304.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kilpatrick DG, Edmunds CN,Seymour A. Rape in America: a report to the nation. Arlington: National Victim Center; 1992.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hyman I, Guruge S, Stewart DE, Ahmad F. Primary prevention of violence against women. Womens Health Issues. 2000;10(6):288–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Luce H, Schrager S, Gilchrist V. Sexual assault of women. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(4):489–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beebe DK. Sexual assault. In: Family medicine. New York: Springer; 1994. p. 211–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine and Rural HealthFlorida State University College of MedicineTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations