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HIV Drug Resistance in Mothers and Infants Following Use of Antiretrovirals to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission

  • Scott Olson
  • Quy Ton
  • Lisa FrenkelEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

In the United States and other resource-rich nations, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) that suppresses viral replication below the limits of detection in the plasma is standard of care for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). In many resource-limited communities, financial and infrastructure limitations preclude ART for pregnancy. Instead, abbreviated PMTCT regimens of short-term antiretrovirals (ARV) (mono- or dual therapy) that do not suppress viral replication to undetectable levels are recommended. While these less costly approaches achieve significant decreases in the rates of MTCT, selection of HIV drug resistance (HIV-DR) has been detected in both mothers and infected infants. This chapter reviews prominent studies that provide insight into HIV-DR related to use of ARV for PMTCT and discusses how recent findings and therapeutic advances have led to policy changes and new directions in this developing field.

Keywords

HIV Mother-to-child-transmission Zidovudine Nevirapine Drug-resistance 

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Infectious Diseases/Departments of Pediatrics, Laboratory Medicine and Global HealthUniversity of Washington and Seattle Children’s Research InstituteSeattleUSA

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