Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

2015 Edition
| Editors: Karen E. Nelson

Phylogenetics, Overview

Phylogenetics: A Root and Branch Analysis of the Tree of Life
  • Roy Sleator
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7478-5_708

Synonyms

Evolutionary relatedness

Definition

Phylogenetics, derived from the Greek terms phylon (meaning “tribe”) and genetikos (meaning “genitive” or origin), is the study of the evolutionary history of species, organisms, genes, or proteins through the construction and analysis of mathematical entities known as trees or phylogenies.

Introduction

Darwin’s The Origin of Species marked the birth of phylogeny, a discipline whose primary aims are to classify all living organisms, grouping all extant descendants of a given ancestor within specific groups or clades; to provide insights into the shared properties of members within each clade; and to allow retro direction, i.e., the ability to infer ancestral properties based on observable characteristics of extant organisms.

A significant limitation of traditional morphology-based phylogeny approaches is the fact that reconstructing ancient evolutionary events requires a vast sum of character changes. Furthermore, many of these morphological...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesCork Institute of TechnologyCorkIreland