Comparative and Functional Metagenomics of Akkermansia muciniphila
Akkermansia muciniphila is an important member of the intestinal microbiota that has specialized on colonizing and degrading host-derived mucin.
Over the course of evolution, intestines of animals have been colonized with microbes. The symbioses between the host and this microbiota became essential for nutrition and immune development (Dethlefsen et al. 2007; Relman 2012). Within the gastrointestinal tract, the host genome is reinforced with the collective genetic potential (i.e., the metagenome) of the microbiota that adds up to two orders of magnitude of additional genes that comprise a broad range of functions, such as the conversion of complex carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the detoxification of undesired compounds, and the production of various vitamins (Qin et al. 2010).
There are substantial physicochemical, biological, and architectural differences between the major sections of the intestinal tract, including the duodenum, ileum,...
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