Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

2015 Edition
| Editors: Sarah K. Highlander, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera, Bryan A. White

Colorectal Cancer-Associated Microbiota

  • Harold Tjalsma
  • Bas E. Dutilh
  • Annemarie Boleij
  • Julian R. Marchesi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7475-4_774

Synonyms

Alpha-bugs; Bacterial drivers; Keystone pathogens; Microbiome; Microbiota

Definitions

Colonic dysbiosis: a local or disseminated change in the composition of the colonic microbiota that often leads to impaired health. Dysbiosis may either be the cause or consequence of intestinal disease.

Commensalism: a form of symbiosis where one organism benefits (the commensal) without affecting the other (the host). For example, some types of microorganisms in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract are commensals.

COX-2 pathway: the regulatory pathway responsible for formation of important biological regulator molecules, including prostaglandins. The COX-2 enzyme is not detectable in most healthy tissues but is upregulated during inflammation and in carcinomas. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, inhibit the COX-2 pathway and decrease the risk for CRC.

Genotoxin: a compound capable of causing damage to, or genetic mutations in, DNA (synonyms: mutagenic or...

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Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was in part supported by the Dutch Digestive Diseases Foundation (MLDS; project WO 10–53). BED and AB were supported by a Dutch Science Foundation (NWO) Veni (016•111•075) and Rubicon (825•11•031) grant, respectively.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Tjalsma
    • 1
  • Bas E. Dutilh
    • 2
  • Annemarie Boleij
    • 3
  • Julian R. Marchesi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i) and Research Institute for Oncology (RUCO)Radboud University Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics (CMBI)Radboud University Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.School of BiosciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK