Human calicivirus; Stomach flu
A group of human and animal viruses containing a positive-strand RNA genome of 7–8 kilobases packaged in an icosahedral capsid.
Acute-onset gastroenteritis involves vomiting and diarrhea and is often caused by bacterial or viral infection. Viruses capable of such infection include kobuvirus (Picornaviridae family), astrovirus (Astroviridae family), rotavirus (Reoviridae family), and norovirus (Caliciviridae family). The majority of viral gastroenteritis is attributable to noroviruses, which are estimated to cause approximately 21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the USA annually (Hall et al. 2011; Scallan et al. 2011). Norovirus infection has an average incubation period of 12–48 h and causes an illness characterized by acute onset of nausea, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. This virus is most commonly transmitted by contaminated food, water, and person to person, but transmission via aerosolized droplets of...