Cultivation-Independent Assessment of the Bacterial Diversity of Breast Milk Among Healthy Women
The human milk microbiome
Microbiota: the assemblage of microorganisms present in a defined environment.
Microbiome: the totality of microorganisms and their collective genetic material present in a specific environment.
Human milk is a relevant factor in the initiation, development, and composition of the neonatal gut microbiota (Cho and Blaser 2012). This biological fluid represents a continuous source of bacteria to the infant gut (Fernández et al. 2013; Jeurink et al. 2012) and also provides prebiotic human milk oligosaccharides (Bode 2012). It has been suggested that exposure of the breast-fed infant to such a wealth of bacterial phylotypes may exert beneficial effects against diarrheal and respiratory diseases and may reduce the risk of developing other conditions, such as diabetes or obesity (Hunt et al. 2011).
The first descriptions of the bacterial diversity of breast milk in healthy women were based on the use of culture media and showed the...
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