Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings

  • Charles Muiruri
  • Habib R. Omar
  • John A. Bartlett
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_441-1


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment has been proven to slow the progression of disease and reduce the risk of transmission for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The goal of ART treatment is to completely inhibit viral replication in vivo and sustain the effects for as long as possible.

Introduction on Impact

Access to ART in resource-limited settings (RLS) has provided opportunity for infected patients to achieve nearly normal life expectancy with clear health gains. Before 2001, many people in RLS did not have access to ART due to the high cost and lack of availability of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Under special terms in international trade law, manufacturers in RLS began to produce generic drugs in 2001. This production expanded ART coverage, and by 2012, 9.7 million individuals representing 61 % of all eligible HIV-infected patients under the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) HIV treatment guidelines were on treatment in RLS. These...


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Virological Failure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Muiruri
    • 1
  • Habib R. Omar
    • 2
  • John A. Bartlett
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Duke Global Health InstituteDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Kilimanjaro Christian Medical CenterMoshiTanzania
  3. 3.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA