Autophagy and HIV Infection
Autophagy is a fundamental and highly regulated lysosomal degradation mechanism, dependent on specialized autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) (Mizushima et al. 2011). It can be classified into macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy, but only macroautophagy will be described and hereafter referred to as autophagy since it is the major lysosomal route for the turnover of cytoplasmic constituents. It is characterized by the formation of membranes that engulf cytoplasmic material through the formation of autophagic vacuoles, called autophagosomes. These structures fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes where the sequestered material is digested by lysosomal hydrolases. Before this degradative step, autophagosomes can also fuse with endosomes to form amphisomes, making a direct connection between the endo-lysosomal and autophagic pathways. This process is highly dynamic, and constituents are continuously recycled through lysosomal transporters toward...
KeywordsAutophagosomal Membrane Autophagy Flux Pathogen Recognition Receptor Specific Protein Complex Atg8 Family
Laure Papin doctoral fellowship is funded by Sidaction, and Jamal Alfaisal is profiting from the DUNIA BEAM Erasmus Mundus scholarship, funded with the support of the European Commission.
- Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauget C, Axler-Blin C, Brun-Vezinet F, Rouzioux C, Rozembaum W, Montagnier L. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983;220:868–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blanchet FP, Moris A, Nikolic DS, Lehmann M, Cardinaud S, Stalder R, Garcia E, Dinkins C, Leuba F, Wu L, Schwartz O, Deretic V, Piguet V. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 inhibition of immunoamphisomes in dendritic cells impairs early innate and adaptive immune responses. Immunity. 2010;32:654–69.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borel S, Robert-Hebmann V, Alfaisal J, Jain A, Faure M, Espert L, Chaloin L, Paillart JC, Johansen T, Biard-Piechaczyk M. HIV-1 Vif interacts with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 and inhibits autophagy. AIDS 2015. In press.Google Scholar
- Gregoire IP, Richetta C, Meyniel-Schicklin L, Borel S, Pradezynski F, Diaz O, Deloire A, Azocar O, Baguet J, Le Breton M, Mangeot PE, Navratil V, Joubert PE, Flacher M, Vidalain PO, Andre P, Lotteau V, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Rabourdin-Combe C, Faure M. IRGM is a common target of RNA viruses that subvert the autophagy network. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002422.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kyei GB, Dinkins C, Davis AS, Roberts E, Singh SB, Dong C, Wu L, Kominami E, Ueno T, Yamamoto A, Federico M, Panganiban A, Vergne I, Deretic V. Autophagy pathway intersects with HIV-1 biosynthesis and regulates viral yields in macrophages. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:255–68.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ravikumar B, Sarkar S, Davies JE, Futter M, Garcia-Arencibia M, Green-Thompson ZW, Jimenez-Sanchez M, Korolchuk VI, Lichtenberg M, Luo S, Massey DC, Menzies FM, Moreau K, Narayanan U, Renna M, Siddiqi FH, Underwood BR, Winslow AR, Rubinsztein DC. Regulation of mammalian autophagy in physiology and pathophysiology. Physiol Rev. 2010;90:1383–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roggero R, Robert-Hebmann V, Harrington S, Roland J, Vergne L, Jaleco S, Devaux C, Biard-Piechaczyk M. Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 to CXCR4 induces mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of Fas signaling. J Virol. 2001;75:7637–50.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar